Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Efficacy of Acacia Seed and Bark Extract as insecticide

Investigatory project
by

Jerome Lemuel De Pano

on 19 May 2010

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Efficacy of Acacia Seed and Bark Extract as insecticide

Efficacy of Acacia Seed and Bark Extract as insecticide The ideal insecticide should kill the target pest
It should not injure non-target insects, other wildlife, or you.
It should have a short residual life
Ideal Insecticide:
This investigatory project attempts to answer the following questions:

What are the chemical compositions present in Acacia tree that can be use as insecticides?
What methodology can be use to extract the insecticidal chemicals present in Acacia tree?
How effective is the prepared Acacia insecticide in combating or killing pest insects?
What are the significant differences in the effectiveness of the Acacia extract and commercial insecticide?
What are the implications of the usage of Acacia seeds and bark as insecticide on human health and the environment?

Methodology Materials
Sodium Carbonate Quartz Sand Acetone Acacia Seeds and Bark Petroleum Ether Distilled Water Glass Funnel Separatory Funnel •Collection of Acacia seeds and bark •Wash the samples thoroughly in tap water and then rinsed with distilled water •Shade dry at room temperature. •10 grams of Acacia seeds and bark are weighed and placed in a mortar. •One gram of Sodium Carbonate and 20 grams of quartz sand are added and ground to a fine pulp. •Then 50 ml. of acetone is added and grinded continued for several minutes. •The mixture is poured into the glass funnel, for filtering. •Wash the mortar with 25 ml. acetone and pour the washing into the funnel. •Pour the extracted sample into the separatory funnel containing 20 ml. of petroleum ether and mix. Statement of the problem Significance of the Study There are many commercial insecticide preparations highly effective against insects. However, it has been sufficiently demonstrated that these preparations are generally extremely lethal even in small quantities and persistent in the food chain. For these environmental concerns it is preferable to seek alternatives not possessing of these properties.

Significance of this study is to provide alternative insecticide that is less lethal and does not persist in the food chain. Recent research was conducted about the insecticidal capability of the Acacia tree, particularly of its seeds and bark. Acacia seeds and bark revealed the presence of saponin, tannins, alkaloids, reducing agents – glycosides, carbohydrates, which have the capacity to kill insects.

Due to the Philippines’ rich natural resources, having Acacia tree grow abundantly on its soil, efficacy of Acacia Seeds and Bark against insects can be tested.
Pest insects are based on the potential damage on human purpose. They cause damage to agricultural crops, consume and/or damage harvested food, cause illness or unproductively to agricultural animals, and vector human disease.

For centuries man had made innovative ways in combating pest insects, which leads to the invention of insecticides. Though insecticides contributed big in the elimination of pest insects, it also contributed big ecological alteration due to its toxic chemical properties. Over usage of it causes alteration in the food chain, causing toxic exposure and intake to both animals and human.
Recently a research was conducted about the insecticidal capability of the Acacia tree, particularly of its seeds and bark. Acacia seeds and bark revealed the presence of saponin, tannins, alkaloids, reducing agents – glycosides, carbohydrates, which have the capacity to kill insects.

Due to the Philippines’ rich natural resources, having Acacia tree grow abundantly on its soil, efficacy of Acacia Seeds and Bark against insects can be tested.

Having a test regarding the efficacy of Acacia Seeds and Bark against insects can be a great help in promoting clean leaving, and centuries of misusage and abuse on insecticides will be lessened or even be eliminated through the help of this research.
Background of the study Acacia Tree Acacias contain a number of organic compounds that defend them from pests and grazing animals. Many of these compounds are psychoactive in humans. The alkaloids found in Acacias include dimethyltryptamine (DMT), 5-methoxy-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) and N-methyltryptamine (NMT). Acacia seeds and bark revealed the presence of saponin, tannins, alkaloids, reducing agents – glycosides, carbohydrates, which have the capacity to kill insects (termites). The plant leaves, stems and/or roots are sometimes made into a brew together with some MAOI-containing plant and consumed orally for healing, ceremonial or religious uses. Egyptian mythology has associated the acacia tree with characteristics of the tree of life An insecticide is a pesticide used against insects in all developmental forms. They include ovicides and larvicides used against the eggs and larvae of insects respectively. Insecticides are used in agriculture, medicine, industry and the household. The use of insecticides is believed to be one of the major factors behind the increase in agricultural productivity in the 20th century. Nearly all insecticides have the potential to significantly alter ecosystems; many are toxic to humans; and others are concentrated in the food chain. It is necessary to balance agricultural needs with environmental and health issues when using insecticides. Insecticides Saponins are a type of sterol glycoside widely distributed in plants. The saponins have diverse biological activities finding use in agents employed as fungicides, insecticides, anticancer agents, cosmetics, food preservatives and fertilizers with growth-promoting and insecticidal effects. Further use for saponins are found in the removal of cholesterol from dairy products and as feed supplements for livestock, such as chickens, to reduce cholesterol levels in eggs and reduce manure odor. Despite these many and diverse uses, the combined effect of saponin with other compounds remains largely unexplored, most notably the combined effect of saponin with other agents having pesticidal and/or fungicidal activities. Saponin Tannin has several industrial uses as preservatives. In dry wood and leather, tannin averts rotting, changing of shape and decay by bacteria and fungi. It also repels insects and herbivores and protects the plants. Bacteria and fungi cannot grow on plants or wood containing tannin by restricting the flow of extra-cellular microbial enzymes. As a result of this, micro-organisms are not allowed to develop colonies in plants containing tannin or timber and leather treated with the substance. Tannins Alkaloids are produced by a large variety of organisms, including bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals and are part of the group of natural products (also called secondary metabolites). Many alkaloids can be purified from crude extracts by acid-base extraction. Many alkaloids are toxic to other organisms. Alkaloids Froth test for saponins was used. 1g of the sample was weighed into a conical flask in which 10ml of sterile distilled water was added and boiled for 5 min. The mixture was filtered and 2.5ml of the filtrate was added to 10ml of sterile distilled water in a test tube. The test tube was stopped and shaken vigorously for about 30second. It was then allowed to stand for half an hour.
Honeycomb froth indicated the presence of saponins. Test for the presence of saponin, tannins, alkaloids, reducing agents – glycosides, carbohydrates Test for Saponins 3g of the powdered sample was boiled in 50ml distilled water for 3minutes on a hot plate. The mixture was filtered and a portion of the filtrate diluted with sterile distilled water in a ratio of 1:4 and 3 drop of 10 ferric chloride solution added.
A blue or green color indicates the presence of tannins. Test for Tannins 25ml of dilute sulphuric acid was added to 5ml of extract in a test tube and boiled for 15 minutes, cooled and neutralized with 10 NaOH, and then 5ml of fehling solution A and B was added.
A brick red precipitate of reducing sugars indicates presence of glycosides. Test for Glycosides Test for Alkaloids 2.0ml of extract was measured in a test tube to which picric acid solution was added.
The formation of orange coloration indicated the presence of alkaloids. Test for Reducing Sugars
(Benedict’s test) Add 8 drops of each of the sugar solutions to 3 ml. of Benedict’s qualitative test reagent and shake each tube. Place all the tubes at the same time in boiling water bath and continue boiling for 3 minutes.
A red-orange precipitate indicates the presence of reducing sugar. preparation of Sample Extraction of the sample:
Wash 3 times with distilled water, and then discard the washings. Test for the presence of saponin, tannins, alkaloids, reducing agents – glycosides, carbohydrates Saponin Honeycomb froth indicated the presence of saponins. Tannins A blue or green color indicates the presence of tannins. glycosides A brick red precipitate of reducing sugars indicates presence of glycosides. ALKALOIDS The formation of orange coloration indicated the presence of alkaloids. Carbohydtares A red-orange precipitate indicates the presence of reducing sugar. Acacia insecticide Effect on ants: Effect on cockroaches: Effect on flies: Death upon application Death upon application Death upon application Conclusion Acacias contain a number of organic compounds that defend them from pests and grazing animals. Acacia seeds and bark revealed the presence of saponin, tannins, alkaloids, reducing agents glycosides, carbohydrates, which have the capacity to kill insects. Data for its validity can be observed throughout the research paper as various tests were performed to check the presence of saponin, tannins, alkaloids, reducing agents glycosides, carbohydrates (compounds with insecticidal property).
Through the use of experimental insects like ants, flies and cockroaches, validity of the insecticidal property of Acacia extract was tested. It has been observed that the concentration of the Acacia extract is directly proportional to its insecticidal property. The higher the concentrations of Acacia extract the more effective it become as insecticide. Both the acacia insecticide and commercial insecticides are effective in killing insects. However commercial insecticides have been sufficiently demonstrated that these preparations are generally and extremely lethal even in small quantities and persistent in the food chain.

It is time to search for better, health friendly and eco-friendly alternatives for combating pest insects. And there is only one way to do that but the use of organic insecticides. Various experimentation and researches was done to prove the effectiveness of organic insecticides. It is only up to use if we are going to use it to save what has remained on earth.
Recommendations
After a thorough analysis of data, the following recommendations are hereby made:
The relationship between the toxicity of the sample, mortality of the insects and the efficiency of the sample should be incorporated to the research.
The experimentation on the effectiveness of the acacia sample is minimal. Further investigation on the level of toxicity on animals, humans and environment must further be pursued.
With regards to the utilization of plant extracts, one can also make use of other organic materials like tobacco leaves extracts to eliminate the occurrence of insects.
Research for an environmentally- friendly and of low toxicity insecticide aside from Acacia must be pursued.

Dallo, Tovya
De Pano, Jerome Lemuel
Duguran, Denise
Prepared by:
Full transcript