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Ed Psych: Motivation

Focus on Motivational theories

Victor Delclos

on 24 June 2014

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Transcript of Ed Psych: Motivation

William James
“Observed facts indicate that all branches of intellectual activity have in common one fundamental function (or group of functions), whereas the remaining or specific elements of the activity seem in every case to be wholly different from that in all the others.”

From General Intelligence, Objectively Determined and Measured, 1904
Charles Spearman
“Of several responses made to the same situation, those which are accompanied or followed by satisfaction to the animal will, other things being equal, be more firmly connected with the situation, so that when it recurs, they will be more likely to recur. The greater the satisfaction . . . the greater the strengthening of the bond.”

From Animal Intelligence, 1911
Edward L. Thorndike
Maria Montessori
L. S. Vygotsky
Howard Gardner
(1943- )
James A. Banks
(1941- )
“If the topic be highly abstract,
show its nature by concrete examples;
if it be unfamiliar,
make it figure as part of a story;
if it be difficult,
couple its acquisition with some prospect
of personal gain.”

From Talks to Teachers on Psychology, 1899
“Scientific observation has established that education is not what the teacher gives; education is a natural process spontaneously carried out by the human individual, and is acquired not by listening to words but by experiences upon the environment. The task of the teacher becomes [arranging] a specially prepared environment, and then refraining from obtrusive interference .”

From Education for a New World, 1989
“In the theory of multiple intelligences (MI) we believe that human cognitive competence is better described in terms of a set of abilities, talents, or mental skills, which we call ‘intelligences.’ All normal individuals possess each of these skills to some extent; individuals differ in the degree of skill and in the nature of their combination.”

From Multiple Intelligences, 1993
“Education for multicultural literacy should help students attain the skills, attitudes, and commitments needed to become citizens who will work for social justice in their nation-states and in the world.”

From An Introduction to Multicultural Education, 2002
Intelligence certainly has something to do with learning
But, what is Intelligence?
Robert Sternberg
( 1949- )
What are some ways that we can think about learning?
What can we learn about EDUCATION from the study of PSYCHOLOGY?
Do different individuals have different ways of learning?
What is the purpose of schooling?
He is considered the "Father of American Psychology"
Jere Brophy
“My research has been focused on getting everybody away from this ‘fun’ notion [when discussing motivation] and toward more of an emphasis on learning. I like to use words like meaningful, worthwhile, satisfying, valued, appreciated. Those are the right kind of words to describe the affective response of children when they are learning the way they ought to be learning.”

From New Educator Newsletter, 1998
E. L. Thorndike Award, 2007
E. L. Thorndike Award, 2003
Basic needs and drives
"[I propose a bill] to establish in each ward a free school for reading, writing and common arithmetic; to provide for the annual selection of the best subjects from these schools, who might receive at the public expense a higher degree of education at a district school; and from these district schools to select a certain number of the most promising subjects, to be completed at an University where all the useful sciences should be taught. Worth and genius would thus have been sought out from every condition of life, and completely prepared by education for defeating the competition of wealth and birth for public trusts."

to John Adams, from The Writing of Thomas Jefferson, 1813
Thomas Jefferson
“Education must enable a man to become more efficient, to achieve with increasing facility the legitimate goals of his life. Education must also . . . enable one to sift and weigh evidence, to discern the true from the false, the real from the unreal, and the facts from the fiction.”

From The Papers of Martin Luther King, Jr., (1947)
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Do boys and girls learn differently?
Does race/ethnicity impact learning?
Is socio-economic status important?
What about Motivation?
Atkinson-Shiffrin Model of
Information Processing
Richard Atkinson
(1929- )
E. L. Thorndike Award, 1980
Learning Preferences
Learning Styles
“In the development of the child, there is no pre-established plan, but a gradual evolution in which each innovation is dependent upon the previous one. Adult thought might seem to provide a pre-established model, but the child does not understand adult thought until he has reconstructed it, and thought is itself the result of an evolution carried on by several generations, each of which has gone through childhood.”

From The Psychology of the Child, 1969
Schooling in the service of society
Schooling in the service of the individual
Jacquelynne Eccles
E. L. Thorndike Award, 2005
Jean Piaget
E. L. Thorndike Award, 1976
Information Processing
"An operation that initially represents an external activity is reconstructed and begins to occur internally. . . .
An interpersonal process is transformed into an intrapersonal one. . . .
The internalization of socially rooted and historically developed activities is the distinguishing feature of human psychology."

From Mind in Society, 1978.
Reuven Feuerstein
(1921- )
“By mediated learning experience (MLE) we refer to the way in which stimuli emitted by the environment are transformed by a ‘mediating’ agent, usually a parent, sibling, or other caregiver. The mediator selects stimuli that are most appropriate and then frames, filters, and schedules them; he determines the appearance or disappearance of certain stimuli and ignores others.”

From Instrumental Enrichment, 1980
What other Individual Difference factors influence learning?
L. L. Thurstone
John Dewey
Benjamin Bloom
Robert M. Gagne
Jerome Bruner
(1915- )
Albert Bandura
(1925- )
Ann L. Brown
John D. Bransford
(1943- )
“The essentials of method are [that] the pupil have a genuine situation of experience;
. . . a genuine problem that develops within this situation;
. . . that he possess the information needed to deal with it;
. . . that suggested solutions occur to him which he shall be responsible for developing in an orderly way;
. . . that he have the opportunity and occasion to test his ideas by application, to make their meaning clear and to discover for himself their validity.”

From Democracy and Education, 1916
“Most students (perhaps over 90 percent) can master what we have to teach them, and it is the task of instruction to find the means which will enable our students to master the subject under consideration.”

From Learning for Mastery, 1968
“A learning environment should be
knowledge-centered, where the nature of the knowledge that is being taught is organized in a way that supports understanding and subsequent transfer;

learner-centered, where one really knows the preconceptions about the subject matter that people bring to the class as well as preconceptions that the students have of themselves as learners;

assessment-centered, where there are frequent opportunities for the students to test their own knowledge and to see if they understand; and

community-centered, where people feel free to say that they do not understand and they feel free to collaborate with one another rather than compete with one another .”

From How People Learn, 2000
“Any subject can be taught effectively in some intellectually honest form to any child at any stage of development.”

From The Process of Education, 1960
“In a community of learners . . . students are encouraged to engage in self-reflective learning and critical inquiry.
. . . Teachers are expected to serve as active role models of learning . . . they teach on a need-to-know basis.
. . . The curriculum . . . feature[s] a few recurring themes.
. . . The environment is designed to encourage intentional learning, reflection and communication.
. . . Assessment focuses on the students’ ability to discover and use knowledge.”

From Design Experiments, 1992
“The question is, how can what you know about learning as an event, or as a process, be put to use in designing training so that it will be maximally effective?”

From Military Training and Principles of Learning, 1962.
How do we know if children are learning?
What does all of this tell us about teaching?
E. L. Thorndike Award, 2001
E. L. Thorndike Award, 1974
E. L. Thorndike Award, 1999
E. L. Thowndike Award, 1981
E. L. Thorndike Award, 1973
David Ausubel
E. L. Thorndike Award, 1977
"If I had to reduce all of educational psychology to just one principle, I would say this: The most important single factor influencing learning is what the learner already knows. Ascertain this and teach him accordingly."

From Educational Psychology, 1968
Standardized Testing
Lee J. Cronbach
“The special task of the social scientist in each generation is to pin down the contemporary facts. Beyond that, he shares with the humanistic scholar and the artist in the effort to gain insight into contemporary relationships and to align the culture’s view of man with present realities. To know man as he is is no mean aspiration.”

From American Psychologist (1975), 30, 126.
E. L. Thorndike Award, 1967
Alternative Assessments
The Brain
James A. Banks
A Taxonomy of Educational Objectives

• Knowledge
• Comprehension
• Application
• Analysis
• Synthesis
• Evaluation
Learning requires:

• Attention
• Retention
• Reproduction
• Motivation
Conditions of Learning

(1) gaining attention (reception)
(2) informing learners of the objective (expectancy)
(3) stimulating recall of prior learning (retrieval)
(4) presenting the stimulus (selective perception)
(5) providing learning guidance (semantic encoding)
(6) eliciting performance (responding)
(7) providing feedback (reinforcement)
(8) assessing performance (retrieval)
(9) enhancing retention and transfer (generalization).
IDEAL Problem Solver
Reciprocal Teaching
Observational Learning
Conditions of Learning
Spiral Curriculum
Advance Organizers
APA Learner-Centered Principles
This is known as the
Law of Effect
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
Taxonomy of
Educational Objectives
ESEA Blueprint

"Most of the standardized testing instruments [and written examinations] used In schools today deal largely with
information. . . . There should be a much greater concern with the development of attitudes, interests, ideals, and habits. To focus tests exclusively on the acquisition and retention of information may recognize objectives of education which are relatively unimportant."

Educational Policies Commission, 1938
"Measuring the results of education must be increasingly concerned with
such questions as these: Are the children growing in their ability to work together for a common end? Do they show greater skill in collecting and weighing evidence? Are they learning to be fair and tolerant in situations where conflicts arise? Are they sympathetic in the presence of suffering and indignant in the presence of injustice? Do they show greater concern about questions of civic, social, and economic importance? Are they using their
spending money wisely? Are they becoming more skillful in doing some useful type of work? Are they more honest, more reliable, more temperate, more humane? Are they finding happiness in their present family life? Are they living in accordance with the rules of health? Are they acquiring skills in using all of the fundamental tools of learning? Are they curious about the natural world around them? Do they appreciate, each to the fullest degree
possible, their rich inheritance in art, literature, and music? Do they balk at being led around by their prejudices?"

Education Policies Commission, 1938
Guided Discovery
Rote vs. Meaningful Learning
Mental Abilities
Verbal comprhension
Word fluency
Number facility
Spatial visualization
Associative memory
Perceptual speed
Alfred Binet
Triarchic Theory
of Intelligence
Metacompontents — executive processes used to plan, monitor, and evaluate one's strategy for solving problems;

Performance components — nonexecutive processes used to execute the insturctions of the metacomponents for solving problems;

Knowledge-acquisition components — nonexecutive processes used to learn how to solve the problems in the first place
"The triarchic theory of intelligence seeks to understand intelligence in terms of (1) the internal world of the individual (i.e., the cognitive mechanisms underlying intelligent perforance), (2) the external world of the individual (i.e., the environmental contexts in which intelligence operates), and (3) the experience of the individual in the world (i.e., the interface between the internal and external worlds over the individual's life span)."

From Teaching Thinking Skills, 1987
“The zone of proximal development [ZPD] is the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers.”

From Mind in Society, 1978
Brain Plasticity
The "Fifth Lobe"
Abraham Maslow
“I believe firmly that expectations for one's performance and the value that one attaches to doing well in different areas are heavily socialized within the cultural setting as individuals grow up. These beliefs are socialized in ways that are unique to each person. Individuals draw from their own experiences of what they find enjoyable. They are also grounded in what people tell them about what is appropriate for people like them to do. Gender is one of the organizing social categories. However, I think race, ethnicity, and religion are a variety of social categories that also inform individuals' views of who they are and what they should be as they are growing up.”

From The Journal of Academic Advancement, 2008
Bernard Weiner
Learning requires:

• Attention
• Retention
• Reproduction
• Motivation
E. L. Thorndike Award, 1999
“Teachers who believe strongly in their ability to promote learning create mastery experiences for their students, but those beset by self-doubts about their instructional efficacy construct classroom environments that are likely to undermine students’ judgments of their abilities and their cognitive development.”

From Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control, 1997
Albert Bandura
(1925- )
B. F. Skinner
“When what a person does [is] attributed to what is going on inside him, investigation is brought to an end. Why explain the explanation? For twenty five hundred years people have been preoccupied with feelings and mental life, but only recently has any interest been shown in a more precise analysis of the role of the environment.”

From About Behaviorism, 1974
E. L. Thorndike Award, 1966
B. F. Skinner
E. L. Thorndike Award, 1966
The Brain from Top to Bottom, http://thebrain.mcgill.ca
The Adolescent Brain: A Work in Progress, 2005
According to Richard Mayer, Piaget's writing can be broadly summarized into the following major categories:

Cognitive Growth is . . .
Occurs in Stages

From Educational Psychology: A Cognitive Approach, 1987
Mediated Learning Experience
Neurotransmitters &
Progressive Education
E. L. Thorndike Award, 2008
Carole Ames
"When we look at the classroom, there are six areas of organization that are manipulable and that involve motivational concerns: task, authority, recognition, grouping, evaluation, and time."

From Motivation: What Teachers Need to Know, 1990
Alvaro Pascual-Leone
Michael Merzenich
Expectancy-Value Theory
Operant Conditioning
Multiple Intelligences
Self knowledge
Understanding of others
Schedules of Reinforcement
Types of Reinforcement
Pedro A. Noguera
“When placed within the broader context of race relations in American society, the causes of the racial achievement gap appear less complex and mysterious; the gap is merely another reflection of the disparities in experience and life chances for individuals from different racial groups. In fact, given the history of racism in the United States, and the ongoing reality of racial discrimination, it would be even more surprising if an achievement gap did not exist. If the children of those who are most likely to be incarcerated, denied housing and employment, passed over for promotions, or harassed by the police did just as well in school as those whose lives are largely free of such encumbrances, this would truly be remarkable news. But this is not the case, and if we recognize that educational patterns generally mimic other social patterns, we should not be surprised.”

From Motion Magazine June 19, 2000.
John Dewey
From: Maehr M.L. & Zusho, A. (2009). Achievement goal Theory. In K.R.
Wentzel & A. Wigfield, A. (Eds.). Handbook of Motivation at School. New York: Routledge.
Motivational ZPD
Motivation to Learn
W. James Popham
(1930 - )
"I believe that today's high-stakes tests, as they are used in most settings, are doing serious educational harm to children. Because of unsound high-stakes testing programs, many students are receiving educational experiences that are far less effective than they would have been if such programs had never been born."

From: The Truth About Testing, 2001
Formative Assessment
How People Learn
"People are naturally curious, but we are not naturally good thinkers; unless the cognitive conditions are right, we will avoid thinking."

Daniel Willingham, 2009
Socio-cultural Theory
ME-self / WE self
Carr, William G. (1939). National Committees Draft Educational Policies.
The Phi Delta Kappan (21, 8) pp. 371-376, 379.
Multicultural Education
“A learning environment should be


where the nature of the knowledge that is being taught is organized in a way that supports understanding and subsequent transfer;


where one really knows the preconceptions about the subject matter that people bring to the class as well as preconceptions that the students have of themselves as learners;


where there are frequent opportunities for the students to test their own knowledge and to see if they understand; and


where people feel free to say that they do not understand and they feel free to collaborate with one another rather than compete with one another .”

From How People Learn, 2000
Consider motivation only from the standpoint of observables
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