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Occupational Therapy: art or science?
Transcript of Occupational Therapy: art or science?
The OT Process
OT as science
OT as art
"Individuals have within themselves vast resources for self-understanding and for altering their self-concepts, basic attitudes, and self-directed behaviour; these resources can be tapped if a definable climate of facilitative psychological attitudes can be provided" (Rogers 1980)
OT as a whole
(art, science & ethics)
"Occupational therapy is both an art and a science". "The scientific theories and methods that support occupational therapy practice are of immense importance" but the "elements that constitute the art of therapy... are at least as important as the techniques and methods".
Alongside the OT process, it is "elements of the art of therapy that make the difference between highly competent and less competent practitioners".
Punwar (2000, p93)
Provide structure to treatment
Confidence in the methods
Evidence based practice – statistical support
According to Punwar (2000), a ‘competent’ OT:
- accepts responsibility for their decisions,
- takes responsibility for continuing professional
education knowing they must updated their
skills to offer effective client services.
“The expression or application of creative skill and imagination” or,
“a skill in a specified thing: the art of conversation”
Concise Oxford English dictionary (2006, p73)
“Science is the pursuit and application of knowledge and understanding of the natural and social world following a systematic methodology based on evidence.”
(Science Council 2014)
Relationships between the elements of professional practice
Elements of Art and Science needed for Effective Occupational Therapy
Reed & Sanderson (1999)
Cons for using only science
Little room for flexibility and adaptability
Cannot take a holistic approach
No equality between client and practitioner – OT has ‘power’
Other influences – external factors that individuals are embedded in are not considered
Not client-centred, making them fit the therapy rather than the other way around
Understanding the meaning for client
Client centred approach
Use of self