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Year 13 Psychology - Addiction (1)
Transcript of Year 13 Psychology - Addiction (1)
"Do something pleasurable, and the chances are that you want to do it again. Do it a lot and you have a habit"
A few though can turn into a problem!
Some times it is so serious we call it an addiction
All definitions agree that addiction involves
You really feel you cannot do without it
Physical Need - cutting off supply makes you ill
Increased tolerance - need more and more for the same affect
- Therefore leaves plenty of room for disagreement amoung researchers about its diagnosis, cause, effect, treatment and prevention.
• Repetitive habit pattern, increasing the risk of disease and/or associated personal and social problems.
Associated with ‘loss of control’
• Emphasis on immediate gratification, minimising of long-term costs
• Treatment/cessation often followed by relapse.
The official criteria
What is included in this unit?
We are going to describe and evaluate the following models (explanations) of addiction:
The biological model
The cognitive model
Social Learning model
For all the models of explanation you need to understand how the model/explanation explains the
of addictive behaviours.
Initiation: this refers to the process where individuals start to become addicted
Maintenance: This is the process whereby people continue to behave addictively even in the face of adverse consequences
Relapse: this is the process whereby individuals who have managed to give up their addictive habits start to show signs and symptoms of the behaviour again.
Biological Models of Addiction
We will be examining two explanations;
The role of dopamine in addiction
* Opioid Systems
Apply to the cycle
People most susceptible in the
phase, as the model argues that people have a predisposed biological vulnerability.
If a person quits their addiction, a biological predisposition makes
Knowledge and understanding of relevant theories and studies (AO1)
Analysis and evaluation of relevant theories and studies. (AO2/3)
You will also Undertake practical activities involving collection, analysis and interpretation of qualitative and quantitative data (AO3)
Biological Model— addiction occurring as a physiologically
controlled pattern of behaviour.
Cognitive Model— addiction occurring as distorted thinking related
to dysfunctional beliefs.
Learning Models— addiction occurring by environmental
interactions producing euphoric outcomes.
The Psychology of addictive behaviour
1. Models of addictive behaviour (Bio/Cog/learning - explanations for specific addictions, including smoking and gambling)
2. Factor affecting addictive behaviour (vulnerbility to addiction/Media)
3. Reducing addictive behaviour (models of prevention, types of intervention)
Biological Models Assume...
1. Addiction is an illness
2. Individual does not have control over this
3. You are either addicted or not
4. Underlying physiological abnormality
The Role of Genetics
Research to support this
Comings et al (1997)
Inherited from parents
predisposition to addictive behaviour
More likely to try and become hooked to drugs/gambling
Family studies - Merikangas et al (1998)
Dopamine Reward System
Mesolimbic Dopamine System = Reward Centre of the Brain
Altman et al (1996)
Liebman & Cooper (1989)
So why do some people become addicted?
1. What affect does serotonin have on addiction?
2. What affect does the opioid system have on addiction?
1. Questions 1-3 on P430
2. Apply what you have learnt about the biological theories to initiation, maintenance and relapse.
How many addictions can you name?
What does the research suggest?
People with lower levels of dopamine use drugs to increase dopamine