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akansha jain

on 25 August 2014

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Transcript of Robotics


A presentation by B.R.A.C.T Vishwakarma
Institute of Technology

Akansha Jain(SE-Industrial)
Nitish Patil (SE-Industrial)
1. What is Robotics
2. What a robot can mean?
3. Essential Characterisitics of robot
4. Three laws of Robotics
5. Types of robot
6. Architecture,Components & Structure
of Robots
7. Photovore Robot (Circuit-diagram,Principle, Working,Applications)
What Is “Robotics” ?
Block-Diagram of Simple Pick & Place Robot:
What Is “Robotics”?
Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation and application of robots and computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing
The word robotics is used to collectively define a field in engineering that covers the mimicking of various human characteristics.
Examples: Automatic Toy Car,Mobile Sweeper Machine,Machines removing mines,Escape Robot,Solar Beam Robot
A robot must have the following essential characteristics:

: It possesses some form of mobility.

: implying computational or symbol- manipulative capabilities that a designer can combine as desired (a robot is a computer). It can be programmed to accomplish a large variety of tasks. After being programmed, it operates automatically.

: on or around the device that are able to sense the environment and give useful feedback to the device

Mechanical capability
: enabling it to act on its environment rather than merely function as a data processing or computational device (a robot is a machine); and

it can operate using a range of programs and manipulates and transport materials in a variety of ways.
Isaac Asimov's
Three Laws of Robotics
First Law : A robot may not injure a human being, or never allow a human being to be in danger.
Second Law A robot must obey orders given by human beings, except where such orders would not conflict the First Law.
Third Law A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.
Components of ROBOTS
Power source
Control system

The structure of a robot is usually mostly mechanical and can be called a kinematic chain.
The chain is formed of links (its bones), actuators (its muscles), and joints which can allow one or more degrees of freedom.
Suitable power source is needed to run the robots
Mobile robots are most suitably powered by batteries
The weight and energy capacity of the batteries may become the determinative factor of its performance
Power Supply System
They convert the electrical energy into meaningful mechanical work
Mechanical output can be rotational or linear (straight line)
Motors provide rotational motion
Electromagnets provide linear motion
Actuators are the "muscles" of a robot, the parts which convert stored energy into movement.
The most popular actuators are electric motors.
Sensors are the parts that act like senses and can detect objects or things like heat and light and convert the object information into symbols or in analog or digital form so that computers understand. And then Robots react according to information provided by the sensory system

Vision Sensor
Proximity Sensors
Logical Sensors
Robots which must work in the real world require some way to manipulate objects; pick up, modify, destroy, or otherwise have an effect.
Thus the 'hands' of a robot are often referred to as end effectors, while the arm is referred to as a manipulator.

Some manipulators are:
Mechanical Grippers
Vacuum Grippers
General purpose effectors
Locomotion System
This system gives the machine the ability to move forward,backward or turning.It too converts electrical energy to mechanical energy e.g. a wheel driven by some power source
Locomotive System Types
Articulated drive
Synchronous drive
Pivot drive
Car type drive
Microcontroller systems
RoboML (Robotic Markup Language)
XRCL(Extensible Robot Control Language)
The Photovore ,a light-eating robot .The photovore is a robot that chases light,
and it uses sensor algorithms .It consists of rechargable battery which stores the energy in chemical form.
One of the photovore robot with algorithm is shown
Inside Look of Photovore robot :
Circuit Diagram Of Photovore Robot
How it turns ON ?
A large capacitor can be used for storage. The circuit shown waits until the solar panel raises the voltage over the capacitor (4700uF) above some 2.7 V before switching on the oscillator. If the voltage drops below about 2.2 V, the transistors turn off and the capacitor is recharged. The run/charge ratio depends on the amount of light.
Photovore Robot will have a speed of about 2 inches per minute.
And oscillator and motor together use less than 1 mA at 2 volts!
The circuit turns the robot on when the solar panel has charged the capacitor (4700uF) to about 2.7 volts, and off if the voltage drops below some 2.2 volts. The diodes and the first BC559 also limit the voltage supplied to the robot to about 4 V.
P-N photodiodes are used in similar applications to other photodetecors.
Photovore robot are used as a smoke detectors.
They are also widely used in various medical applications, such as detectors for computed tomography.
They are also used in pulse oximeters.
Applications :
Conclusion :
Today's market is not fully mature. One or more software compatibility layers have yet to emerge to allow the development of a rich robotics ecosystem.
Robots may replace humans to an extent but We humans made machines so even we can destroy them.
Robots should be used for unproductive works where human labour is hazardous & harmful.
Invitation of robots in 21st century is "A MUST"
References :
1. Www.wikipedia.org
3. WWW.gadgets.com
4. 123 Robotics Experiments by Myke Predko
5. Robotics By Vijay Kumar
6.PIC Robotics by John Iovine
7.International journal on Advanced Robtic System by Intech
8."Your View: How would you define a robot?". CBC News.
9."Real Robots on the Web". NASA Space Telerobotics Program
10."Eskorta robot". Fennec Fox Technologies.
Types of Robots :

1. Wheeled
2. Legged
3. Flying
4. Climbing
Now the first algorithm For this to work, your robot needs at least two light detecting sensors, typically photoresistors or IR emitter/detectors, out in front and spaced apart from each other. One on left side of your robot, the other located on the right side.
In this code,we have the microcontroller to read the analog value from both sensors. Then do a comparison - the sensor that reads more light is the direction your robot should turn. For example, if the left photoresistor reads more light than the right photoresistor, your robot should turn or tend towards the left. If both sensors read about the same value, meaning the both get the same amount of light, then your robot should drive straight.
So basically it will be a differential drive algorithm.
Now further implementing object avoiding photovore robot.. Bend your photoresistors so that they point downwards, and are close to the ground. Depending on the lighting, objects will all cast shadows onto the ground. Avoiding darkness, your photovore robot is naturally an object avoider. Then improvise your photovore robot algorithm by adding fuzzy logic i.e which will allow commands like 'turn left by 10 degrees' or 'turn right really fast', and with no additional lines of code!
Photovore Split Brain Approach :
This algorithm works without comparison of photoresistor values. Instead, just command the right motor based on light from the left sensor, and the left motor with only data from the right sensor.
The photophobe robot is a robot that runs away from light instead of chases light. There are two ways you can do this. The first is simply to reverse the left and right photoresistors, so that the left sensor is on the right side, and the right sensor is on the left side. With no changes of code, it will avoid light!
Photophobe Robot :
Line Follower Robot :
First the sensor would scan across the entire field for sensor calibration. Then, using my Stampy edge-detecting algorithm, the robot was able to quickly detect the white line without doing wasteful full scan sweeps. The only difference was that instead of finding an edge determined by distance, it found an edge determined by color.On the bottom of the robot you can see the scanning servo and the color sensor used to detect the line.
Recent Trends :
Curiosity is the name of NASA's latest Mars rover, a car-sized nuclear powered robot whose lasers and sensors will hopefully help determine if the planet could ever have supported life. Launched on November 26th, 2011, the vehicle successfully touched down on August 6th, beginning its mission to send back the newest and most complete information scientists have ever gathered about Mars's climate and geology, and laying the groundwork for a future manned mission to the red planet.
Photovore Robot
Mars Rover Curious Robot
Some of the earliest Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) were line following mobile robots. They might follow a visual line painted or embedded in the floor or ceiling or an electrical wire in the floor. Most of these robots operated a simple "keep the line in the center sensor" algorithm. They could not circumnavigate obstacles; they just stopped and waited when something blocked their path. Many examples of such vehicles are still sold, by Transbotics, FMC, Egemin, HK Systems and many other companies.
Industrial Robot
An industrial robot is defined by ISO as an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose manipulator programmable in three or more axes.
Typical applications of robots include welding, painting, assembly, pick and place (such as packaging, palletizing and SMT), product inspection, and testing; all accomplished with high endurance, speed, and precision.
Robot Configurations :
Articulated Robots
SCARA Robots
Delta Robots
Cartesian Co-ordianate Robots
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