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Transcript of Manufacturing
Special purpose machines Continuous Process
Utilized in the manufacture of liquids, oils, gases, and powders ©iStockphoto.com ©iStockphoto.com Turning Processes Operations that create cylindrical parts
Work piece rotates as cutting tool is fed into the work Rapid Prototyping Finished parts can be field tested depending upon building material
Created parts can be used to create a mold
Modifications to design can be implemented quickly A rotating screw forces plastic through a heating chamber and then through a heated die
Produces long plastic parts with uniform cross sections Extrusion Two distinct classes of materials and processes exist.
Glass is heated to a molten state, shaped by viscous flow, and then cooled to produce a solid. Crystalline Ceramics Material is shaped and then heated to produce a permanent solid. Product Creation, Cycle Design, → Material Selection, → Process Selection, → Manufacture, → Inspection, → Feedback Typical product cost breakdown Products and Manufacturing Engineers in Manufacturing Manufacturing Engineer Select and coordinate specific processes and equipment
Industrial Engineer Responsible for the manufacturing system design
Materials Engineer Develop and select materials based on desired material properties and manufacturing processes Small quantities of products
Large variety of products
Products move through the shop to various machines
General-purpose machines Job Shop ©iStockphoto.com ©iStockphoto.com Linked-Cell Shop
Manufacturing and subassembly cells connected to final assembly
Lean production system
One piece flow system ©iStockphoto.com
Product being manufactured cannot be easily moved during production
Production processes are brought to the product
Examples: Bridges, ships, large airplanes, locomotives, large machinery ©iStockphoto.com ©iStockphoto.com Lean Manufacturing
100% “good” units flow from process to process
Integrated quality control (IQC)
All employees are inspectors ©iStockphoto.com Basic Manufacturing Processes Casting and Foundry
Forming or Metalworking
Joining and Assembly
Other Casting and Foundry Processes In one step raw materials are transformed into a desirable shape
Parts require finishing processes
Excess material is recyclable ©iStockphoto.com Basic Casting Process A mold is created – A cavity that holds the molten material in a desired shape until it is solidified
Multiple-use mold Single-use molds
Material is heated to a specified temperature
Molten material is poured into a mold cavity
Molten material solidifies into the shape of the cavity
Casting or mold is removed
Casting is cleaned, finished, and inspected Utilizes material that has been cast
Modify the shape, size, and physical properties of the material
Hot and cold forming Forming and Metalworking Processes ©iStockphoto.com ©iStockphoto.com Rolling – Material passes through a series of rollers, reducing its thickness with each pass Wire, rod, and tube drawing – Material is pulled through a die to produce a uniformed cross section Forging – Material is shaped by the controlled application of force (blacksmith) Extrusion – Material is compressed and forced through a die to produce a uniformed cross section ©iStockphoto.com Cold forming and forging – Slugs of material are squeezed into dies Machining Processes Controlled removal of material from a part to create a specific shape or surface finish
Cutting element is used
Movement must exist between the part and cutting element Lathes and turning centers
Processes include: Straight, taper, contour turning, facing, forming, necking, parting, boring, threading, and knurling Milling Processes Operations that create flat or curved surfaces by progressively removing material
Cutting tools rotate as the work piece is secured and fed into the tool Mills – Vertical and horizontal
Processes include: Surfacing, shaping, forming, slotting, T-slotting, angle, straddle, dovetailing, and slab milling Drilling Processes Operations that create holes
Cutting tools rotate and are fed into nonmoving secured work pieces Drilling and boring machines
Processes include: Drilling, counter drilling, step drilling, boring, counter boring, countersinking, reaming, spot facing, and tapping Shearing Processes Operations that break unwanted material away from the part
A material is placed between a stationary and movable surface. The movable surface (blade, die, or punch) applies a force to the part that shears away the unwanted material. Automated hole punch, squaring shear, and rotary cutter
Processes include: Shearing, blanking, cutoff, and parting; punching, perforating, and slotting; notching, lacing, and trimming Abrasive Machining Processes Operations in which small particles of materials (abrasives) remove small chips of material upon contact
Drum, disc, and belt sanders; surface, vertical and horizontal spindle; disc grinders; media blaster; tumblers Thermal and Chemical Processes Operations that cut and shape materials through chemical means
No mechanical force is used Electrical discharge, electrochemical, chemical, laser, electron beam, flame cutting, and plasma-arc cutting
Processes include: Grinding, sawing, cutting, machining, milling, blanking, and etching Heat Treating Processes Controlled heating and cooling of a material to alter its properties while maintaining its shape
Properties include: Strength, toughness, machinability, wear resistance, and corrosion resistance
90% of heat treating is preformed on steel and other ferrous metals Heat Treating Processes To aid in the manufacturing process, materials can be treated to be weak and ductile and then can be re-treated to provide high strength.
Can also occur incidentally during the manufacturing process Joining and Assembly Processes Can you think of a product with only one part?
Most products consist of multiple parts that are assembled to form a finished product.
Typical assembly processes include: Mechanical fastening; soldering and brazing, welding; adhesive bonding Mechanical Fastening Use physical force to hold parts together
Mechanical fasteners or part design
Screws, bolts, nails, rivets, cotter pins, retaining clips, and edge design ©iStockphoto.com ©iStockphoto.com Joining and Assembly Processes Welding Operations that use heat, pressure, or both to permanently join parts
Gas, arc, stud, spot, forge, roll laminating, resistance, and induction welding ©iStockphoto.com ©iStockphoto.com Joining and Assembly Processes Adhesive bonding Bonding of adjoining surfaces by filling the gap between each surface with a bonding material
Glue, cement, thermoplastic, thermosetting, and elastomers ©iStockphoto.com ©iStockphoto.com Joining and Assembly Processes Soldering and Brazing Operation in which metal surfaces are bonded together by an alloy
Heated molten alloy flows between the adjoining surfaces
When the heat is removed, the molten metal solidifies and the metal surfaces are bonded ©iStockphoto.com Additive process
Parts are produced directly from software applications
Common rapid prototyping systems include: stereolithography (SLA), selective laser sintering (SLS), fused deposition modeling (FDM), laminated object manufacturing (LOM), digital light processing (DLP) Heated plastic is forced by a movable plunger through a nozzle and then into a mold. The material fills the mold and then is cooled.
Most widely used high-volume production process Injection Molding Plastic is melted and poured into a mold – No pressure or fillers are required. Casting A closed mold is filled with a predetermined amount of plastic. The mold is heated, rotated, and then cooled to create a hollow plastic object with uniform wall thickness. Rotational Molding A solid bottom hollow tube is placed between two mold halves and heated. The heated tube is then expanded into the sides of the mold with compressed air. Blow Molding Liquid reactants are mixed and then pressurized into a mold.
No heat is needed. Curing time is typically less than 1 minute. Reaction Molding Plastic sheets are heated over an open mold to a working temperature. Once workable, a vacuum is applied to the mold, forcing the plastic sheet to take the shape of the mold. Thermoforming heat treating &
assembly Other Manufacturing Processes Plastics Ceramics Forming And Metalworking Flow Shop Linked-in Shop Manufacturing and subassembly cells connected to final assembly
Lean production system
One piece flow system Project Shop Rolling, forging, extrusion, and drawing. Joining and Assembly Processes Continuous Process Lean Manufacturing Manufacturing System Designs