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Psychology in Everyday Life Chapter 1

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Janet Neyer

on 21 September 2014

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Transcript of Psychology in Everyday Life Chapter 1

The Old Days...
Psyche + ology = the study of the soul
Is it the brain or the heart that makes us who we are? (Plato and Aristotle)
Phrenology: Franz Joseph Gall (1808)
a pseudoscience with no evidence
Wilhelm Wundt
Father of psychology
First individual to study psychology scientifically
Established first psychology lab in 1879
Sadly (or maybe happily for those of you with bumps!), modern science has revealed phrenology to be nothing but pseudoscience.
Sigmund Freud
One of the most well-known names in psychology
Created psychoanalysis and the psychodynamic branch of psychology
But...his theories cannot be proven scientifically.
Four Big Ideas!
Today, psychology is the second most popular major in college.
What do people with a psychology degree do?
(page 2)
Random Assignment
Random Sample
Advantages and Disadvantages of Experiments
Case Study
studies one person over a period of time
may not provide an accurate picture of all people
Scientists have to be careful to avoid errors in thinking.
hindsight bias
illusory correlation
allows us to determine cause and effect!
can be replicated by others
participants do not always represent the larger population
research conducted on college campuses
(the card demo)
A researcher must assign participants to control and experimental groups at random.
If this is done, all variation in participants can be assumed to be balanced between both groups.
A researcher must choose participants who look like (represent) the larger population.
a measure of how strongly two variables are related to each other
(variables: characteristics of behavior or experience that can be
measured or described by a numeric scale)
Positive correlation: Increases in one variable are associated with increases in the other; decreases are likewise associated
Negative correlation: Increases in one variable are associated with decreases in the other
Correlations show a relationship but never show cause and effect.
Only an experiment can do that.
Big Ideas
Chapter 1
William James
American philosopher
Wrote first American psychology textbook in 1890
Leading behaviorists.
"Championed psychology as the scientific study of behavior"
How do consequences shape our behavior?
BF Skinner
John B. Watson
How do we know?
What is the evidence?
Are we just assuming?
What other explanations are there?
How much is nurture?
How much of who we are is nature?
How do those around us affect our psyche?
event is also a
"We know more than we know we know..."
Dual processing
Exploring Human Strengths
While others call themselves survivors?
Why do some people think of themselves as victims?
How can psychology improve our lives - make us happier, healthier people?
What makes people resilient?
The Science of

To study...
Study the terms sheet.
Study the experiment flowchart.
Go to my teacher website to -
view the chapter 1 prezi.
use our class quizlet.
use the companion website for the textbook.
Full transcript