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Grizzly Bears Waldenu

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Amber Bohaychuk

on 14 June 2013

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Transcript of Grizzly Bears Waldenu

Grizzly Bears
Part A
H
ow does a grizzly bear exhibit the characteristics of living things?
Metabolic
Tillery, Enger & Ross (2008) list the characteristics of living things as being metabolic processes, generative processes, responsive processes, as well as control processes and structural similarities with other living things.
Generative
Responsive
Control
Structural
Similarities
Grizzly bears have
sharp claws
to help them dig for roots and
sharp teeth
to help them catch salmon in streams. These sharp teeth and claws also help them to catch and kill or scavenge other animals, from
rodents to elk and moose
. Their teeth are designed to be sharp in front for tearing meat, while in the back,
flatter teeth
help them to
chew berries, insects, fruit, leaves, shellfish and roots
. A large
hump of muscle
on their backs helps provide strength for digging.
What do grizzly bears do for
energy?
A keen
sense of smell
helps them to find food, as well as detect the presence of other sources of competition like other bears, allowing them to avoid a fight over food. Grizzly bears are
omnivores,
meaning that they eat both plants and animals for food. They need these types of food for their normal day-to-day activities, processing waste, digestion, and all the other processes that require energy in their bodies.
To help retain and
conserve energy
, grizzly bears have a thick layer of
fur
, and a thick layer of
fat
, where energy is stored in the fall to help grizzlies survive the long, cold, hungry winter months.
Amber Bohaychuk
Course Project
Walden University
Grizzly bears reproduce
sexually,
involving two parents, a male and female. Twins are usually born in the winter months.
How does a grizzly increase the number of
individuals in the population
? (Tillery et. al, 2008)
The
amount of cells also increases
in a grizzly bear as old cells die, they need to be replaced by new ones. “Replicated genetic information of a cell is equally distributed to two daughter nuclei in a process called
mitosis
” (Tillery, et. al, 2008, p. 490). During this process, a cell grows, genetic information is copied, and then splits into two cells. Different kinds of cells have different responsibilities to help the bear survive, such as brain, bone and blood cells among many others.
What
changes
within their bodies and surroundings make grizzlies better able to
survive
in a given environment?
Population adaptation, which is the changes the genetic makeup in kinds of characteristics displayed by individuals within a population are known as evolution (Tillery, et. al, 2008). This is a gradual process, and has helped grizzlies to survive over the years. Such characteristics include fur thickness and color, sense of smell, thickness of fat, sharpness of claws and teeth to help the animal collect food.
Grizzlies also are able to respond quickly to stimuli such as sight, sound, touch, taste and smell, allowing them to meet their needs for survival. When they hear, see, or smell an animal or food source nearby, they behave by moving towards that source, making an effort to obtain it by either hunting or digging behavior, thereby meeting their need for energy.
How are grizzlies body systems coordinated to maintain metabolic activities and homeostasis?
Grizzlies have
enzymes
which are able to increase and control the rate at which life’s chemical reactions occur, regulating amount of nutrients processed, oxygen and temperature requirements to maintain the bears system operation at optimal levels (Tillery, et. al, 2008). This is a common process in many animals, allowing food to be processed slowly enough not to need to eat all the time, while quickly enough to maintain energy supplies needed for the bears’ regular day to day activities. Oxygen levels increase during exertion, to accomodate additional needs for cellular respiration as sugar, water and oxygen react to form energy and waste products like carbon dioxide.
Bears also have a unique method of conserving energy, in their ability to
hibernate
. During the fall, bears will eat and eat and store energy as fat, which allows them to survive without eating during the winter. In the winter, grizzlies will survive without eating, drinking, defecating, or urinating. Even urea is converted back into protein, heartbeat slows, and body temperature is lowered in an effort to conserve as much energy as possible (Teel, 2008). Though they can be awakened, bears are able to enter into this deep sleep stage of hibernation, where they do not need to wake for several months.
Grizzly bears are a
sub species of the brown bear
,
and share structural similarities with features of other bears, as well as other
animals
.
As an animal, a grizzly bear shares the structural similarity with other animals that it is completely made up of cells, specifically
eukaryotic
cells, where the nucleus of the cell is enclosed by a nuclear membrane. As “all living things are composed of cells” (Tillery, et. al, 2008, p. 471), and grizzly bears are made of cells, therefore grizzly bears are living creatures. Such cells contain a
true nucleus
containing DNA, and categories of eukaryotic organisms are further broken down into fungi, protozoa, algae and animals (Tillery, et. al, 2008). Though they may be quite different from other animals, bears share similar
basic cell structures
with those of other animals, such as
mitochondria, cytoplasm, golgi body, lysosomes, ribosomes, smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, and cell membranes
.
These cells are organized into tissues, organs, and organ systems, such as can be found in other mammals. Grizzly bears have respiratory, digestive, circulatory, muscular, and skeletal systems not unlike those of other mammals in their basic function and design, modifications made for shape, size and diet of the animal.
Part B
Specialized cells and structures
Does a grizzly have specialized cells or structures?
The grizzly bear has a special ability to
resist the implantation of fertilized egg cells
until the body is ready to gestate a pregnancy. These cells are special in that they are able to lie
dormant
, to wait and see if the bear is healthy enough before they divide further, multiplying into a baby bear.
Delayed
Implantation
Genetic information
in the nucleus of grizzly bear cells code for specialized structures exist for the grizzly bear, in terms of the adaptations that have evolved over time to help them survive. Written in the chemical
DNA
code,
feeding adaptations include
- sharp teeth and claws
hunting adaptations include
- having brown fur for camouflage purposes. -The ability to hibernate helps grizzlies survive
Genetic
Code
DNA
References
Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society (CPAWS). Wildlife. Retrieved from http://cpaws.org/campaigns/wildlife May 20, 2013

Derworiz, C. (2012). Controversial cycling event returns to Banff: Grizzly bears forced to detour last year. Calgary Herald. Retrieved from http://www2.canada.com/calgaryherald/news/city/story.html?id=712e1ba9-545d-4c73-aeae-80cce7ef3215 June 10, 2013

National Geographic. Grizzly Bear, Ursus arctos horribilis. Retrieved from http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/mammals/grizzly-bear/ May 16, 2013

Gibeau, M. (1995). Implications of preliminary genetic findings for grizzly bear conservation in the Central Canadian Rockies. Eastern Slopes Grizzly Bear Project, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB. Retrieved from http://www.canadianrockies.net/grizzly/genetic.html May 20, 2013

Laforest, M. (2013). Banff grizzly bear attack: Dog killed, trail closed in Banff National Park. The Canadian Press. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/2012/09/28/banff-grizzly-bear-attack-dog_n_1924546.html June 10, 2013

Moola, F. 2013. Living with bears tour comes to B.C. David Suzuki Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.davidsuzuki.org/blogs/panther-lounge/2013/04/living-with-bears-tour-comes-to-bc/ May 20, 2013

Proctor, M., McLellan, B., Strobeck, C., & Barclay, R. (2005). Genetic analysis reveals demographic fragmentation of grizzly bears yielding vulnerably small populations. The Royal Society of Biological Sciences. PMC US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1559960/ May 20, 2013

Teel, J. (2008). Hibernation in grizzly bears. Retrieved from http://www.grizzlybay.org/LearnMore/Hibernation.htm May 16, 2013

Tillery, B., Enger, E., & Ross, F. (2008). Integrated science (4th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Thirteen. (2013). Arctic bears: how grizzlies evolved into polar bears. Educational Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/episodes/arctic-bears/how-grizzlies-evolved-into-polar-bears/777/ May 20, 2013


Walker, M. (2009). Polar bear plus grizzly equals? BBC Earth News. Retrived from http://news.bbc.co.uk/earth/hi/earth_news/newsid_8321000/8321102.stm May 20, 2013
Habitat (Biome): Where does a grizzly live?
Part C
Grizzly Bear Genetic Issues
Genetic Abnormalites, Issues, Diseases or Conditions
Inheritable
Traits
Hybrid Species
What genetic issues are grizzly bears facing?
Hybrid: Grizzly + Polar Bear = Pizzly
Characteristics show that hybrids are
between
the large polar bear and slightly smaller grizzly in terms of
size
, and though they inherited characteristics from either parent, traits such as
partially hollow hair
appear to be a blend of the two parents (Walker, 2009). They also have
hairy feet, longer necks and tails like polar bears, small shoulder humps like grizzly bears, and a blend of size and head shape
. Interestingly enough,
behavior
is also noticeably polar bear like, in
stamping
on toys like a polar bear would on ice, or hurling objects like a polar bear would with its prey.

Generally, polar bears and grizzly bear territorial ranges do not overlap, but it is possible that with human activity and development, as well as
global warming
reducing the availability of ice as a habitat for the polar bears, that the two may be forced together in the near future.
Yes! Grizzly bears can breed with polar bears to create hybrid animals. What would we call them? Grolar bears? Pizzlies? Grizzly bears are closely related enough to breed with polar bears. Though it is
possible, though rare to find a polar bear grizzly hybrid in the wild
. It is more likely to be facilitated by human hybridization
experimentation,
or close proximity of grizzly and polar bears in
zoos.
Further
genetic diversity is also limited
when members of grizzly populations are
shot
by conservation officers in areas of human activity, where there is increased grizzly bear mortality due to bear attractants such as garbage, human food and perceived threats to human safety, and hunting practices permitted (Proctor, et al., 2005). Some bears are also killed by passing
trains,
or die younger when they are trapped and relocated. As there are less bears, which are increasingly isolated and
extirpated,
which means that they are no longer living in a particular area, genetic variation is decreasing.
Grizzly bears are suffering from habitat loss as humans continue to build roads, cities, extract oil and gas, and cut down trees for forestry purposes, or for using the land for ranch or agricultural uses. Proctor, McLellan, Strobeck & Barclay (2005) explain that habitat
fragmentation
is a serious threat to biological diversity and is at the root of the present extinction crisis. By sampling the DNA of a selection of bears on either side of Alberta and British Columbia, the study used area-specific allele frequencies, which showed genetic fragmentation, where bear populations are limited or restricted to certain areas, and are able to only reproduce with bears nearby. Grizzly bears need room to roam, and Canada’s interconnected mountain parks are ideal habitat, though development and industrial pressure in the Rocky Mountains region are reducing the bears’ numbers (CPAWS, 2013). Normally bears would travel more, spreading their hereditary information along greater ranges, increasing genetic diversity.
hump
hair color
longer claws (comparison with black bear)
Inherited Traits
Genetic Issues....FRAGMENTATION
The
effects of inbreeding depression tend to be more detrimental
for these small populations (Proctor, et al., 2005). When there is not enough genetic diversity, bears are forced to breed with closer relatives. It would be like humans marrying their cousins, and not a natural way to create the next generation. The problems with inbreeding are that when closely related individuals mate and produce offspring, that the offspring are recognized to have
fertility, birth weight, growth rate, survival rate, disease resistance and productivity depressed
, as well as a reduced fitness because it reveals harmful genes in homozygotes (Gibeau, 1995). It is healthier for grizzly bear populations to have large numbers of grizzly bears, and for them to mix and mingle over large distances to mate with other bears that do not share similar genetic information
Genetic Issues....INBREEDING
Genetic Issues...LIMITED GENETIC DIVERSITY
The "Pizzly"
Part A
H
ow does a grizzly bear exhibit the characteristics of living things?
Part B
Specialized cells and structures
Grizzly Bear Genetic Issues
Part C
Delayed implantation allows grizzlies to expend energy mating in the spring, and time to build up energy reserves in the fall before gestation takes place
.
Though bears mate in the spring, and gestation only takes 6-8 weeks, a bear’s body does not implant the newly formed cells until
enough fat
is accumulated in the fall to allow survival for offspring (Teel, 2008). As a mother bear needs to nurse her cubs throughout the winter, despite being in the process of hibernation, she needs have enough fat to support her young. Should a mother be lacking in energy reserves necessary, the cells will absorb back into her body, and no cubs will be born. This is not like in humans, where implantation happens within days of fertilization of sex cells, unless miscarriage occurs.
Part D
Grizzly's role in the ecosytsem and conservation efforts
Though grizzly bears once ranged both prairie grasslands and vast forest biomes, they have been limited by human expansion to forested mountain areas and valleys.
What is the niche of the grizzly within its habitat?
Grizzly bears are an essential part of healthy, fully functioning ecosystems in western North America, which makes them an
indicator species
, indicative of ecosystem health. They
regulate prey species

such as elk and deer, and help maintain plant and forest health by
dispersing plant seeds
and
aerating the soil
as they dig for roots and ground squirrels.
Wolves vs. Grizzlies
competition for top predator at Yellowstone National Park
As a top consumer, grizzlies help to maintain balance in an ecosystem by
keeping populations of

herbivores in balance
. Too many deer and elk would strain the environment as they would eat too many of the plants, causing starvation if there were too many deer.
How does a grizzly fit within the food web
(producer, consumer, decomposers)?
Grizzly bears occupy the
consumer
niche of a food web. They are
omnivores
, which means that they are able to eat both plants, such as berries and flowers, and animals such as chipmunks, salmon, grouse, marmots, elk and deer.
What are the environmental factors contributing to the grizzly's “endangered” status?
Unfortunately, grizzly bears face environmental threats everywhere they live: habitat loss, damage, and fragmentation. As humans continue to invade the grizzly’s habitat, there is increased mortality as a result of sport hunting, poaching, and collisions with trains and vehicles.
Grizzly Hunt
in Alaska
How has the ecosystem changed due to deliberate or inadvertent actions by humans?
The Good, the Bad, and the Grizzly
The Delisted Yellowstone Grizzly Update from Natural Resources Defense CouncilJuly 16, 2008
Willcox, L. (2008) NRDC http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/episodes/the-good-the-bad-and-the-grizzly/the-delisted-yellowstone-grizzly-update-from-natural-resources-defense-council/1036/If whitebark pine declines as predicted,
Grizzly female reproductive success will drop, and human-caused mortality rates will increase as bears are forced to forage in lower elevation habitat to search for food. Here in these lower areas,
human development and subdivision is escalating.
Some counties around Yellowstone Park are doubling in population every six to seven years. Instead of living in towns, many new arrivals seek to build homes in river bottoms and near national forest lands — the best bear habitat. The pattern and nature of these developments will make it even more difficult for grizzly bears to access alternative foods as whitebark pine declines. In addition, threats from
energy development
are increasing in and around key habitats that grizzly bears will need to use to offset the anticipated loss of whitebark pine in the core of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Of particular concern is
natural gas
development in Wyoming’s upper Green River area. Also, new high-voltage energy
transmission lines
are being proposed that would, if built, potentially sever Yellowstone’s grizzlies from other grizzly populations to the west and north — leaving Yellowstone grizzlies isolated forever. This development would exacerbate the existing problems related to the
loss of genetic health
of Yellowstone grizzly bears following 100 years of isolation.
What types of protections, if any, have been put in place to give the grizzly a chance at survival and recovery?
Building corridors
between parks has helped allow grizzlies to migrate from one area to another to find mates, increasing the ability for genetic diversity to take place, as capturing and transporting grizzlies to different areas is not an economically feasible process for long term success.
Adding grizzlies to the
lists
of species that are endangered or threatened helps to increase
awareness and education
.
Bear
education
for camping and hiking enthusiasts reduces interactions with bears where they learn to be dependent on humans for food, and then need to be shot as they scare humans when coming too close.
Building of
artificial bridges
covered in plants and trees
over highways
allows bears opportunities to cross large highways without having to risk crossing the actual road itself.
City of Canmore,
near Calgary, AB, expanding in prime valley habitat
Grizzly sighting at Lake Louise
ski hill (one of my favorites!)
in summer
Grizzly and cubs
crossing busy
traffic and
train tracks
omnivore: consumer of plants and animals
Part D
Grizzly's Role in the Ecosystem + Conservation
(1 hr video)
Part E
Controversies
Controversies
#1- Banff Cycling Event
Cyclists love to bike through the mountains. Challenging terrain and fantastic views make for a nice ride. Rather than cancel the event, to mitigate interactions with bears, parks officials track bear movements, and have
adjusted and reduced the length of the 2013 route
to avoid encountering grizzlies (Derworiz, 2012).
#2- Hikers, campers and dogs attacks
Usually dogs, but sometimes hikers encounter bears and come away with injuiries, or worse. Near Lake Louise a Skoki Lodge employee lost her jack russell terrier to a bear (Laforest, 2013). To manage these interactions,
trails
with high levels of bear activity, especially during the fall feeding season, are
closed
. Hikers are also required to keep their
dogs on a leash
.
#3- Ranchers vs. Grizzlies
Grizzly bears see cows penned up nicely, and probably consider them as fast food. Convenient, easy to catch, and plentiful in certain areas, ranchers lose stock (and money) when a grizzly eats one. Especially in Alberta where we are known for our high quality beef.
http://globalnews.ca/news/552922/southwest-alberta-ranchers-losing-cattle-to-grizzly-bears/
Calgary news story: Go to Global News site...
Full transcript