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Land Based Education
Transcript of Land Based Education
Philosophy, cosmology, epistemology, ontology and
Dr. Alex Wilson
Land Based Education
Having the ability to recognize cultural blindspots and work with them (suspending judgment)
Asking questions and taking a moment to pause and ponder. (inquiry and reflection)
Moving beyond shame and blame to a place of mutual productivity (understanding our assumptions and adoption of beliefs)
Building trust and relationships across cultures through the sharing of knowledge and information (listening with the intent to learn)
Understanding the intimacy and vulnerability of one’s learning process and that collective learning is teamwork with sustainable results (holding and moving through tension)
Inclusion through tolerance
Recognize “different” groups
Recognize we are all equal
Education for racial harmony
Celebration of cultures
New because of immigration
Culture and Ethnicity definable and
reinforces 4 races 'myth'
Ideologies that inform praxis
(adapted from anti-racist media and the Ontario Public Interest Research Group)
Institutionalized (societal/cultural) and interpersonal (forms of oppression)
Disconnection from meaningful relationships including to land/water
Normalization of violence
Violence is internalized
Entrenched binary gender 'roles'
Hegemony-- privileges certain world views and dismisses others
Men’s and boys’ experiences of violence are different than women’s and girls’ in important ways.
Men more likely to be injured by strangers in public or social venue, women are in greater danger of experiencing violence from intimate partners in their own homes.
Women at greater risk of sexual violence.
Fear of violence more pervasive for women and can prevent them from taking part as full citizens in their communities.
Violence women experience at the hands of intimate partners can have profound effects on children. Children who are exposed to violence at home suffer from emotional trauma, have poor educational outcomes, and are at increased risk of using violence to solve problems (Stats Canada)
Gender binary is entrenched
iolence is gendered
Violence is gendered
1995 Federal Action Plan for Gender Equality emphasized interconnections between equality and not only gender, but other personal characteristics:
Barriers to equality are rooted in long-standing attitudes and traditions not only about women, but also about race, age, sexual orientation, disability, colour, etc. In particular, life situations of women outside dominant culture—women with disabilities, Aboriginal women, women from visible minorities, elderly women, lesbians, lone mothers, women in poverty—are quite different from mainstream. For them, path to equality has been, and continues to be, even more difficult. Equality for all women will come about only as these attitudes, imbedded in the workplace, educational institutions and the family, are challenged and begin to change. To achieve true equality, actions must be taken that adjust for the differences in experiences and situations between women and men, and among women, and that correct the systemic nature of inequality (Stats Canada).
Indigenous women are five times more likely to die from violence than other women and make up 75 per cent of sex crime victims under the age of 18 (NWAC, 2010).
Violence is racialized
taking resp. for ending oppression
challenges status quo, standard, supremacy
examines power rel'ns and interconn. factors
Institution not just indiv behaviours
challenges steretypes/appropriation/assumptions about "race" and "gender"
"Columbus Day", 2012
Perspective / Paradigm
violence normalized and legitimated
photos: R. Sockbeson
Photo: T. Wilson
used with permission of artist D. Odjig and Manitoba Museum
classism, sexism, racism, homophobia
gender "roles" entrenched
"love in actions"
how can we move from adding Indigenous "perspectives" (tokenism) to a meaningful paradigm shift?
Why is this racist image still a school mascot, in Saskatoon?
A culturally and historically specific way of thinking about, categorizing, and treating human beings.
2. Anthropol. A. a classification of modern humans, sometimes, esp. formerly, based on an arbitrary selection of physical characteristics, as skin color, facial form, or eye shape, and now frequently based on such genetic markers as blood groups…
7. The characteristic taste or flavor of wine.
It is clear that even though race does not have a biological meaning, it does have social meaning which has been legally constructed.
Within Homo sapiens he proposed four taxa.
Americanus, Asiaticus, Africanus, and Europeanus, based on place of origin and skin color.
Native Americans were reddish, stubborn, and angered easily.
Africans were black, relaxed and negligent. Asians were yellow, avaricious, and easily distracted. Europeans were white, gentle, and inventive
Source Linnaeus, Carl. Systema Naturae (1767), p. 29
Social Construction of Race
Four race ‘teachings’
Blood quantum and identity
Concept of race has been internalized
"Have you ever had the experience of getting home to find those pesky little buggers hanging outside your home, in the back alley or on the corner??? Well fear no more, with my service I will simply do a harmless relocation. With one phone call I will arrive and net the pest, load them in the containment unit (pickup truck) and then relocate them to their habitat. It doesn't matter if they need to be dropped off on Salter or the rez, I will go that extra mile. My service is free because I want to live in the same city you do, a clean one.”
“…His Majesty's Council, do hereby authorize and command …to annoy, distress, take or destroy the Savage commonly called Micmac, wherever they are found, and all as such as aiding and assisting them, give further by and with the consent and advice of His Majesty's Council, do promise a reward of ten Guineas for every Indian Micmac taken or killed, to be paid upon producing such Savage taken or his scalp (as in the custom of America) if killed to the Officer Commanding."
British Scalp Proclamation
Gov. Cornwallis 1749
Racial theory has supported process of colonization
Canadians are socially conditioned to view race as biologically natural and based on visible physical differences, such as skin color, hair texture, eye color, appearance and nose shape.
There were no distinct, archaic human subspecies
Contemporary humans are not divisible into biological races
Race as biology has no scientific value
It has no biological or scientific basis:
18th Century European scholars, Buffon & Blumenbach created a racial hierarchy using Europeans as the norm and all other peoples as exotic variations of white people. The scientific classifications of humans by race which emerged from that work included: Caucasoid, Mongoloid and Negroid.
Concept of “Race”
botanist, physician and zoologist, laid the bases of binomial nomenclature (the method of naming species)
known as the "father of modern “taxonomy" (the science of describing, categorizing and naming organisms)
also a pioneer in defining the concept of "race" as applied to humans.
Land Based Education
environmental racism, systemic racism, internalized, institutionalized
curriculum and hidden curriculum
analysis, interpretation, knowledge translation
land as text
respect, relationality, Elders, youth
theory to praxis
moving forward together