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Chapter 10

Elizabeth Terrell

on 7 May 2013

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Transcript of Agriculture

Agriculture Origins Classifying Agricultural Regions Chapter 10 Agriculture: deliberately modifying Earth's surface through plants and animals for an economic gain. Origin: hunters and gatherers
Small groups
Searched for food daily
Gender based jobs
today .005% do this, isolated
in parts of Africa & Australia Types of Cultivation: 1. Vegetation Planting: reproducing plants by cloning existing ones
ex: dividing roots
2. Seed Agriculture: reproducing plants through annually planting seeds from fertilization Agriculture Hearths Vegetative Planting Southeast Asia
Taro and yam roots
Dog, pig, chicken
Diffused north, then west
Also, in West Africa (oil-palm tree; yam) & northwest South America (manioc; sweet potato) Seed Agriculture
Western India, northern China, & Ethiopia
Diffused to Southwest Asia, adding herd animals
Rice became important in Asia
In Western Hemisphere: Mexico (maize) & northern Peru (squash; cotton)
Domesticated animals diffused to Europe to New World Subsistence: producing food for consumption of own family; in LDCs
Commercial: producing food for sale off the farm; in MDCs Subsistence 5 differences: 1. purpose
2. % of farmers in labor force
3. Machinery
4. Farm size
5. Relationship with
other businesses 1. purpose: own needs; sell surplus
2. % of farmers in labor force: 50%
3. Machinery: hand tools &animal power
4. Farm size: small, family size
5. Relationship with
other businesses: isolation Commercial 1. purpose: sold to food processing companies
2. % of farmers in labor force: 2-10% and dropping
3. Machinery: farm machines, transportation aid, electronics (GPS), satellite monitors, yield monitors
4. Farm size: about 444 acres but most family owned; has been losing prime agricultural land to urban areas
5. Relationship with
other businesses: strong agribusiness Mapping Agricultural Regions Derwent Whittlesey; geographer; divides world in 11 main regions (5 MDC and 6 LDC) Further divided by climate
Religion is a factor in an area's production
ex: no Pork in Muslim regions
ex: little wine production in Africa & Asia Key Issue 1: Where did
agriculture originate? Key Issue 2:
Where Are
Agricultural Regions
in LDCs Shifting Cultivation Where is it? Humid Low-Latitude climate region (A region)
high temps & rainfall
Amazon of South America, Central and West Africa, Southeast Asia Characteristics 1. Slash- and- burn agriculture: farmers clear land for planting
slash vegetation
burn debris
2. Grow crops for only a few years, deplete soil, wait for soil to recover, repeat The Process Cut trees, large first
Burn undergrowth (make a "swidden")
Fertilize with potassium from debris The Crops Southeast Asia: rice
South America: maize and cassava
Africa: millet and sorghum
Brazil: plant in rings. Sweet potatoes in inner; corn in outer; yams in both; requiring more nutrients are on outer (fruits; cotton; beans)
Family farms: a swidden can contain several crops or few and trade Amount of land for shifting cultivation is dropping Swidden left "fallow" (nothing planted) Amazon cultivation is being replaced by: logging cattle ranching cash crops This is coinciding with smaller rainforests Pastoral nomadism
involves nomadic animal husbandry
dry climates in LDCs
provide food, clothing, shelter
include goats, camels, horses, sheep, cattle
sense of territoriality,
determining the land
they occupy Transhumance practiced by some pastoral nomads
is the seasonal movement of livestock between mountains & low/land pastures types of subsistence agriculture:
shifting cultivation
pastoral nomadism
intensive subsistence agriculture
plantation agriculture Asia on small plots, mostly by hand
wet rice
dominant crop in Southeast Asia
planted in dry soil in a nursery
moved to seedlings in a flooded field called a sawah
harvested in husks, called chaff
separated from the seeds when heads are threshed (beaten on ground)
placed on a tray
the lighter chaff is winnowed (blown away by wind)
the hull (outer covering) is removed by mortar and pestle to be prepared to eat aka paddy Intensive Subsistence Agriculture type of subsistence farming Double Cropping farmers get 2 harvests/year from 1 field
in parts of Asia Crop
Rotation way of obtaining more than 1 harvest/year
Using different fields form crop to crop each year to avoid soil exhaustion
in Asia where whet rice isn't dominant only significant large-scale commercial agriculture
specialize in crops to be exported, such as:
typically owned by foreign companies
labor intensive
in sparsely settled areas
must import workers & supplies
tries to work year round
with different crops Plantation Agriculture There have been less private owned farms since the Communist Revolution. The government made communes, consisting of several villages to try to promote efficiency.
Result: people worked less effectively than when working for themselves used to be popular for tobacco, cotton, and sugarcane in Colonial times Crops are processed at the plantation so they're less bulky & cheaper to ship Key Issue 3:
Where are
Agricultural Regions
in MDCs Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming Type of Commercial Agriculture most common form in west US and east Europe (from France to Russia) Where is it? Characteristics integrating livestock and crop
most of the crops are fed to animals
livestock products provides for $ year round Crop Rotation System farm divided into fields on different cycles
2+ crops, one per year
year of fallow
maintains fertility of a field
one crop may deplete one nutrient, but provides another. This makes it different from shifting cultivation
2 field crop rotation: cereal grain (ex: oats) on 1 and fallow on the 2nd. flip next year.
3 field crop rotation: winter cereal grain on 1, spring cereal grain on 2nd, fallow on the 3rd
4 field crop rotation: root crop in 1, cereal on 2nd, "rest crop (ex: clover) on 3rd, cereal on 4th Uses for these Crops Four Field Crop
Rotation Three Field Crop
Rotation Two Field Crop
Rotation Cereal Grain Fallow Fallow Winter
Cereal Grain Spring
Cereal Grain Root Crop Cereal Grain Rest Crop Fallow Crop Rotation System Category Crops Uses Cereals Wheat; barley Sell for flour or beer production Cereals Straw (threshed stalks from wheat) Animal bedding Root Turnips Fed to animals in Winter Rest Clover Cattle grazing; restore soil's nitrogen 4 harvests every 6 years per field 3 harvests every 6 years per field United States mixed crop and livestock farming #1 crop= corn
#2 crop=soybeans Corn Belt: Ohio to the Dakotas Dairy Farming Type of Commercial Agriculture Where is it? Near urban areas in North America & Europe
Australia & New Zealand Milkshed Ring surrounding a city
Milk can be supplied without spoiling
Improved transportation allows for shipping farther from market Specialty Products Milk
Butter From excess milk Farms sell fresh milk if close to milkshed; more in the East US
Farms sell cheese, butter, dried/evaporated/condensed milk if farther from milkshed; more in the West US Distribution Farm sells to wholesalers
Wholesalers distribute to retailers
Retailers sell to consumers
Or farmers sell milk to butter or cheese manufacturers Grain Farming type of Commercial Agriculture Where is it? Western North America and southern Russia
3 important North America Regions:
Winter Wheat belt: Kansas, Colorado, Oklahoma; plant in Fall
Spring Wheat belt: Dakotas, Montana, southern Saskatchewan; plant in spring
Washington state Tools 1830s: the McCormick reaper
Today: the combine, which reaps, threshes, and cleans Wheat importance Make bread flour
Sells for more than other grains
More uses as human food
Doesn't spoil as fast; transported farther
World's leading export crop
"breadbasket": North America prairies 2 fields
one in the spring-wheat belt
one in the winter-wheat belt
spreads out workload
use same machinery for both Two Sets of Fields Livestock Ranching Ranching: commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive area Where is it? Semiarid or arid land in MDCs
Poor soil ex: Texas
Brought to America by Columbus.
Once established in Texas, they would travel to East Coast cities where they can sell cattle for high prices at a high demand.
Also in Argentina, southern Brazil, Uruguay Evolution of It Used to be herding cattle over ranges in seminomadic style
Then, became sedentary farming; dividing open land into ranches Today, part of the meat-processing industry, than isolated farming like for pastrol nomadism in LDCs type of Commercial Agriculture Mediterranean Agriculture Where is it? Mediterranean
Parts of Chile, Australia, South Africa Products Diverse crops, such as grapes, olives, nuts, fruits, vegetables
For human consumption
50% of land is devoted to cereals (except in California) Horticulture Term for growing fruits, vegetables, and flowers Bordering Mediterranean Sea Cash crops: olives and grapes
Produces 2/3 of world wine
Also important for cooking oil type of Commercial Agriculture Commercial Gardening &
Fruit Farming Where is it? Southeastern US
Close to urban areas (truck farming)
truck was the Middle English word for barter, or exchange of commodities Products Fruits and vegetables in demand, either sold to consumers fresh or to processors for freezing or canning
Many farms only produce one or two crops Workers Cheep labor from LCDs ex: undocumented immigrants from Mexico Specialty Farming A new form in New England
Crops with a limited but increasing demand among consumers type of Commercial Farming Explains importance of proximity to market & the choice of crops in commercial agriculture
Johann von Thunen: book called The Isolated State (1826)
Rent, or land value, will decrease the further you get form a market
ag. products that use land intensively, high transportation costs, perishable, or have a high demand, are close to the market
fruit and vegetables
ag. products that use land extensively are further from the market
livestock ranching
Commercial farmers combine 2 sets of monetary values to determine most profitable crop:
value of the yield per hectare
Cost of transporting the yield per hectare von Thunen Model city horticultural/dairying forestry crop rotation more extensive Grazing crop rotation von Thunen Model Key Issue 4:
Why Do Farmers Face
Economic Difficulties? Economic Considerations 1. rapid population growth
2. demands for the international market Also, Ag. regions are determined in part by climate and cultural preferences Esther Boserup Population has increased in subsistence economies
so farmers have increased production by leaving land fallow for short periods of time and by adopting new methods Differentiating sustainable ag.
and conventional ag. sensitive land management
limited use of chemicals
better integration of crops and livestock
(sustainable ag. is organic farming) types of commercial agriculture:
mixed crop and livestock
dairy farming
grain farming
livestock farming
Mediterranean farming
commercial gardening and fruit farming Colonial ag. systems today:
divide jobs by gender In places such as Kenya
women practice subsistence ag.
men practice commercial ag. for exports
Crops exported from LDCs can be converted to drugs Genetic modification (GM) Sub-Saharan African countries encouraged by US to increase food supply by increased use of Gm of crops and livestock
Increases yields and nutrition
More resistance to pests Identified 5 stages in the intensification of farmland:
1. Forest Fallow: fields cleared; used for 2 years; fallow for 20+ years; forest grows back

2. Bush Fallow: fields cleared; used for 8 years; fallow for 10 years; small trees and bushes grow back

3. Short Fallow: fields cleared use for 2ish years; fallow 2 years; wild grasses grow back

4. Annual Cropping: Fields used every year; fallow for few months by planting roots and legumes

5. Multicropping: Fields used several times a year; never fallow Strategies to Increase Food Supply 1. Expand land for ag.
2. Increase productivity of land now used for ag.
3. Identify new food sources
4. Increase exports to other countries
note: These all have challenges
ex: for #1: desertification (land is deteriorating to a desert condition due to being overused/dried up Green Revolution 1970s/1980s
Increased ag. productivity globally
2 main practices:
Introduce new higher-yield seeds
Expand use of fertilizers (Nitrogen is an important fertilizer) 3 means of develop new food sources
Cultivate the oceans (fish more; protect those areas)
Develop higher-protein cereals (via hybrids)
Improve palatability of rarely consumed foods (eat different things/ underused food sources) # 3 con't: Dealing with MDC overproduction Governments will:
Encourage planting fallow crops
Subsidize farmers
Purchase surplus production Ridge Tillage Type of land management
Is the planting crops on ridge tops to conserve soil aquaculture= fish farming Note: there is a food-supply crisis in LDCs, especially in Africa. A way the world economy is trying to fix this is reapportioning by exporting more food from MDCs type of subsistence farming type of subsistence farming type of subsistence farming
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