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Alternative Energy: Ethanol and Methanol

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Chemistry Lab group

on 27 February 2013

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Transcript of Alternative Energy: Ethanol and Methanol

Conclusion Chemical formula: CH3OH

From natural gas, feedstocks

Compared to gasoline:
Less flammable
Reduces emission rate
Higher engine efficiency
Less environmental pollution What about Methanol? Lower energy content than gasoline
Not nationally distributed
Lead to shortage of grain products
Very corrosive Cons of Ethanol Methanol Historical Facts Reduces greenhouse gas emission
Positive Energy Balance
Produced domestically
Jobs in rural areas
In more than 95% of gasoline sold in U.S. Why Ethanol Continued... E10 - Gasohol
10% ethanol and 90% gasoline
"Substantially similar" to gasoline
In most vehicles Ethanol and Gasoline Blends Chemical formula: C2H5OH

Alcohol-based fuel
High quality, high octane
Trillions of miles driven
From cellulosic biomass

Current Usages
Snowmobiles What is Ethanol?
Winter Oxyfuel Program
In cities with elevated CO levels

Year-round Reformulated Gasoline Program
Less volatile than ethanol
Reformulated gasoline (RFG)
Less-polluting option CAA's Oxygenated Gasoline Programs Oxygenated gasoline
Combat air pollution
Oxygenate additives:
-Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE)
Why increase oxygen content? Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990
(CAA) Maureen Bennett, Chao Ji, Jack Kang, & Edward Lee Alternative Fuels:
Ethanol and Methanol
Lower energy content
Severe health effects
Unpleasant odor
Produced within U.S.
Compared to gasoline:
Higher octane ring
Lower production cost
Less volatile Methanol Pros and Cons http://www.afdc.energy.gov/fuels/ethanol_fuel_basics.html
http://science.jrank.org/pages/2575/Ethanol-Advantages-ethanol-an-alternative-fuel.html Harmless to the environment
Higher horsepower than gasoline
High energy density Why Ethanol? http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/demos/main_pages/5.17.html 2 CH3OH(l) + 3 O2(g) -> 2 CO2(g) + 4 H2O(g)

Exothermic reaction
Energy released: 680 kJ/mol methanol Combustion of Methanol http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/demos/main_pages/5.17.html http://wwwchem.csustan.edu/consumer/fuels/heats%20.htm
C2H5OH (l) + 3O2(g) --> 2CO2 (g) + 3H2O (l)

Energy released: 1276 kJ/mol ethanol Combustion of Ethanol http://www.tumblr.com/tagged/model%20t%20ford
http://www.fuel-testers.com/ethanol_fuel_history.html Samuel Morey
Turpentine/ethanol engine
Michael Faraday
Synthetic ethanol
Henry Ford
Automobile utilizing ethanol Ethanol Historical Facts 1661, discovered by Robert Boyle

1923, synthetic methanol

1970s, oil crisis --> methanol as motor fuel

1900s, over 20,000 vehicles use methanol/gasoline

Modern production with catalysts
http://www.alternativeenergysourcesinfo.com/ethanol-fuel-advantages-and-disadvantages.html http://www.epa.gov/mtbe/gas.htm http://www.epa.gov/mtbe/gas.htm http://www.ethanolrfa.org/pages/ethanol-factsengine-performance
Ethanol over methanol
Clean production
Renewable fuel

So, why consider alternative
energy if we already have
gasoline? http://www.afdc.energy.gov/fuels/images/ethanol-chart-economic-impact.png http://www.afdc.energy.gov/fuels/ethanol_fuel_basics.html
http://science.jrank.org/pages/2575/Ethanol-Advantages-ethanol-an-alternative-fuel.html http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/ethanol.shtml http://www.afdc.energy.gov/fuels/emerging_methanol.html http://wwwchem.csustan.edu/consumer/fuels/heats%20.htm http://www.afdc.energy.gov/pdfs/epa_methanol.pdf http://www.extraordinaryroadtrip.org/research-library/technology/methanol/ad-draw.asp http://www.denveroffthewagon.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Ethanol-3D-balls.png
http://www.crystalinks.com/boyle.html "Bond Breaking and Bond Making in Chemical Reactions." Bond Breaking
and Bond Making in Chemical Reactions. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Feb. 2013.
"Clean Alternative Fuels: Methanol." Clean Alternative Fuels: Methanol.
Environmental Protection Agency, Mar. 2002. Web. 25 Feb. 2013.
“Cork Rockets: The Combustion of Methanol.” Purdue University College
of Science. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Feb. 2013.
“Data.” U.S. Department of Energy. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Feb. 2013.
"Ethanol." Ethanol. U.S. Department of Energy, n.d. Web. 25 Feb. 2013.
“Ethanol Facts: Engine Performance.” Renewable Fuels Association. N.p.,
n.d. Web. 25 Feb. 2013.
http://www.ethanolrfa.org/pages/ethanol-facts-engine-performance "Ethanol Fuel Advantages and Disadvantages to Take Note Of." The Pros and Cons of
Using Ethanol Fuel. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2013.
“Ethanol Fuel Basics.” U.S. Department of Energy. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Feb. 2013.
“Ethanol Fuel History.” Fuel-Testers. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Feb. 2013.
“The Heats of Combustion of Fuels.” CSUS Department of Chemistry. N.p., 2013.
Web. 25 Feb. 2013.
“Hydrocarbons vs Carbohydrates: The continuing battle in the United States.”
HempFarm.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Feb. 2013.
http://www.hempfarm.org/Papers/Hydrocarbons_vs_Carbohydrates.html "Methanol." Alternative Fuels Data Center:. AFDC, n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2013.
"Methanol." Invented by Robert Boyle in Year 1661. N.p., 13 Jan. 2010. Web.
26 Feb. 2013.
"Methanol, a Potentially Renewable Energy Resource." Advantages and
Drawbacks. XRT Lab, n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2013.
“MTBE in Fuels.” United States Environmental Protection Agency. N.p., 2012
Web. 25 Feb. 2013.
“Model T Ford.” Tumblr. Tumblr, 2013. Web. 25 Feb. 2013.
"Using Bond Enthalpies." Bond Enthalpies. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Feb. 2013.
http://www.avogadro.co.uk/calculations/method4.htm “What is Ethanol.” American Coalition for Ethanol. American Coalition for
Ethanol, n.d. Web. 25 Feb. 2013.
Ziv, Aaron. "Ethanol Vs. Methanol." Green Living on National Geographic. N.p.,
n.d. Web. 25 Feb. 2013.
http://greenliving.nationalgeographic.com/ethanol-vs-methanol-2476.html References References References Economic Impact of Ethanol E85
85% ethanol and 15% gasoline
In flexible fuel vehicles
Cost depends on region
Cheaper in Midwest Pros Cons http://images.thecarconnection.com/lrg/structure-of-methanol-image-wikimedia-commons_100386199_l.jpg
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