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Common myths about teaching and learning

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John Kane

on 7 September 2016

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Transcript of Common myths about teaching and learning

Jeffrey D. Karpicke and Janelle R. Blunt (2011). "Retrieval Practice Produces More Learning than Elaborative Studying with Concept Mapping." Science 11 February. Vol. 331 no. 6018 pp. 772-775
John Dunlosky, Katherine A. Rawson, Elizabeth J. Marsh, Mitchell J. Nathan, and Daniel T. Willingham (2013). "Improving Students’ Learning With Effective Learning Techniques: Promising Directions From Cognitive and Educational Psychology." Psychological Science in the Public Interest. 4(1): 4-58.
Miller, G.A. (1956). "The magic number seven plus or minus two: some limits on our capacity to process information." Psychological Review 63 (2): 81–97
Most sensory input in the classroom is visual and/or auditory. It is difficult to process both visual and auditory signals simultaneously.

A) True
B) False
John Sweller (1988). "Cognitive Load During Problem Solving: Effects on Learning." Cognitive Science. 12: 257-85.
Ariely, D. and Wertenbroch, K. (2002). "Procrastination, Deadlines, and Performance: Self-control by Precommitment."
Psychological Science
(13(3)). pp. 219-24.
Harold Pashler, Mark McDaniel, Doug Rohrer, and Robert Bjork (2009). "Learning Styles: Concepts and Evidence." Psychology in the Public Interest. 9(3): 105-119.
http://www.apa.org/gradpsych/2011/11/study-smart.aspx
Common Myths about Teaching and Learning
Students learn more when the instructional format matches the student's learning style.

A) True
B) False

While there is evidence that some instructional formats work better for some types of learning, controlled experiments indicate that learning gains are unrelated to student "learning style."
False
Students retain knowledge longer when faculty provide a very organized lecture as opposed to one with small logical gaps.
A) True
B) False
False
Well organized lectures result in improved immediate recall, but result in lower long-term recall and an impaired ability to transfer knowledge to other applications.
Bjork and Bjork (2011). "Creating Desirable Difficulties to Enhance Learning." Psychology and the Real World.
Students are able to retain more information from a presentation when they take notes on a laptop than when they record handwritten notes.

A) True
B) False
Students learn concepts more quickly when topics (and practice problems) are logically blocked together.... but also forget them more quickly. Interleaved practice results in improved long-term knowledge retention and transfer.

A) True
B) False
True
one-week later
Similar results found in art history.
College students viewed tutorials on finding the volume of 4 types of objects. They were tested immediately and a week later.
Total time spent studying is all that matters in terms of long-term knowledge retention and transfer, it does not matter how that time is spaced.

A) True, only total study time matters.
B) False, holding total study time constant, longer blocks of study time right before an exam results in increased long-term knowledge retention and transfer.
C) False, holding total study time constant, greater spacing of study time results in increased long-term knowledge retention and transfer.
John Dunlosky, Katherine A. Rawson, Elizabeth J. Marsh, Mitchell J. Nathan, and Daniel T. Willingham (2013). "Improving Students’ Learning With Effective Learning Techniques: Promising Directions From Cognitive and Educational Psychology."
Psychological Science in the Public Interest.
4(1): 4-58.
Low-stakes or no-stakes testing is more effective in encouraging long-term knowledge retention and transfer than re-reading, highlighting, concept mapping, or any other technique generally practiced by students.

A) True
B) False

True
John Dunlosky, Katherine A. Rawson, Elizabeth J. Marsh, Mitchell J. Nathan, and Daniel T. Willingham (2013). "Improving Students’ Learning With Effective Learning Techniques: Promising Directions From Cognitive and Educational Psychology."
Psychological Science in the Public Interest
. 4(1): 4-58.
High-stakes exams encourage students to study harder and to have improved long-term knowledge retention.

A) True
B) False

False
High-stakes exams result in less distributed practice and more "cramming." This leads to improved short-term performance, but less long-term recall.
Frequent low-stakes testing results in more spacing of student study time and increased long-term knowledge retention.
Jeffrey D. Karpicke and Janelle R. Blunt (2011). "Retrieval Practice Produces More Learning than Elaborative Studying with Concept Mapping." Science 11 February. Vol. 331 no. 6018 pp. 772-775
Jeffrey D. Karpicke and Janelle R. Blunt (2011). "Retrieval Practice Produces More Learning than Elaborative Studying with Concept Mapping." Science 11 February. Vol. 331 no. 6018 pp. 772-775
A higher level of subject matter expertise makes it easier to assist students in learning.

A) True
B) False

In another demonstration, undergraduates were presented with Swahili-English word pairs, followed by either practice testing or review. Recall for items they had been repeatedly tested on was 80 percent, compared with only 36 percent for items they had restudied. One theory is that practice testing triggers a mental search of long-term memory that activates related information, forming multiple memory pathways that make the information easier to access.


Dunlosky, John, Katherine A. Rawson, Elizabeth J. Marsh, Mitchell J. Nathan, and Daniel T. Willingham. "What Works, What Doesn't." Scientific American Mind 24, no. 4 (2013): 46-53.
Student work will be of higher quality if students can select their own deadlines.
A) True
B) False
False
"The explanation arises from what has sometimes been called the “curse of knowledge" by educational psychologists. It is the idea that when you know something, it is extremely difficult to think about it from the perspective of someone who does not know it. There is a classic easily replicated demonstration of this provided by psychologist Elizabeth Newton. She had subjects tap out the melodies of very familiar songs with their finger and predict what fraction of those songs will be recognized by a listener. 'Tappers' typically overestimated the fraction recognized by a factor of 20!"

Carl Wieman (2007). "The 'Curse of Knowledge' or Why Intuition About Teaching Often Fails"
Henry L. Roediger III and Mary A. Pyc (2012). "Inexpensive techniques to improve education: Applying cognitive psychology to enhance educational practice." Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition. vol. 1. pp. 242-8
False.

"In three studies, we found that students who took notes on laptops performed worse on conceptual questions than students who took notes longhand.....laptop note takers’ tendency to transcribe lectures verbatim rather than processing information and reframing it in their own words is detrimental to learning.

Pam A. Mueller and Daniel M. Oppenheimer (2014). "The Pen is Mightier Than the Keyboard: Advantages of Longhand over Laptop Note Taking."

Psychological Science.
Presentations with more visual imagery and less text result in enhanced recall.
A) True
B) False

Josh Cuevas, "Brain-Based Learning, Myth and Reality: Testing Learning Styles and Dual Coding" (2014).
Science-Based Medicine
False.
Rohrer, D., & Taylor, K. (2007). "The shuffling of mathematics practice problems improves learning."
Instructional Science
, 35, 481-498.
Leahy, W., Chandler, P., & Sweller, J. (2003). "When auditory presentations should and should not be a component of multimedia instruction."
Applied Cognitive Psychology
, 17(4), 401-418.
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