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Man and Society
Transcript of Man and Society
The Beginnings of Justice
They were philosophers that are similar with our present day teachers. They are teachers in a wide variety of fields rhetoric, speech, and mathematics among others.
Might is right.
The person who is the most powerful (either in influence, riches, fame), dictate what is right (moral).
Justice is nothing but an advantage of the rich.
charge money for education and providing wisdom only to those who could pay.
presented his idea of a Utopian state
must be curbed in order to exercise temperance
A virtuous human being is a consequence of harmony and unity of all three parts.
peace keepers, soldiers & warriors
farmers, fishermen, craftsmen
is built on performing one's appropriate function.
Justice is a principle of specialization.
A just society aims at fulfilling the will of the rulers.
Utopia= Totalitarian Society
(e.g. Marcos, Putin, Kim Jung-Un)
Men are not better than women.
Women can govern just as effectively as men.
Women have exactly the same powers of reasoning as men, provided they get the same training and are exempt from child rearing and housekeeping.
Women must have the same two branches of training for mind and body and also be taught the art of war, and they must receive the same treatment.
On Family Life
Rulers and warriors are not allowed family life or private property.
Wives are to be held in common by all; so too are the children, and no parent is to know his own child, nor any child his parent.
The rearing children is considered too important to be left to the individual and should be the responsibility of the state.
Man is, by nature, a political animal
The highest form of human fellowship is only to be found in the state.
Society defines man.
We are not real people without our society.
Prescribed three good forms of constitution.
Monarchy or Kingship
There is only one head of state.
For this type of constitution to be good, it must not degenerate into tyranny- that is, when one ruler governs the state to his own advantage.
Polity or Democracy
There is a group of rulers.
This constitutional form must beware of degenerating into an oligarchy- when the government is run by a few people.
A government run by the people.
A democracy can quickly developed into mob rule.
Aristotle's Views on Women
He believe that women were incomplete in some way.
He thinks that a woman was an "unfinished man."
In reproduction, woman is passive and receptive whilst man is active and productive; for the child inherits only the male characteristics, claimed Aristotle.
He believed that all the child’s characteristics lay complete in the male sperm.
The woman was the soil, receiving and bringing forth the seed, whilst the man was the `sower`.
In Aristotelian language, the man provides the form and woman contributes the substance.
2 Kinds of Justice
Retributive justice: making sure that the wicked and wrong-doers get punished.
Distributive justice: the fair arrangement of the goods, benefits, and responsibilities of a society.
Four Concerns of Justice
People should get what they need.
People should give what they can.
People should be allowed to keep what they have (entitlement).
People should get what they deserve (merit).
Four Kinds of Equality
Every person has the same abilities, talents, and advantages. (implausible)
Every person has the same status before the law. (fundamental to our conception of justice)
Every person deserves to be given the same goods, benefits, and responsibilities in our society.
Every person should have the same opportunities for achievement and advancement in our society.
Critique of Plato's and Aristotle's Notion of Justice
Plato’s rigid hierarchy of social classes
and insistence on the inequality of people offends our sense of universal equality, but it is important to see that equality is a position that must be argued and is not a “natural” state of affairs or a belief that has always been accepted by everyone.
Aristotle's shameless defense of slavery,
not only on the grounds that slaves are efficient and good for the society as a whole, but because those who are slaves are “naturally” meant to be slaves and would be unhappy and unable to cope if they were granted freedom and made citizens.
For Aristotle as for Plato
, different people have different roles, and to treat unequal equally is as unjust, according to them, as it is to treat equals unequally.