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King William's War
Transcript of King William's War
King William's War was the first of four inter-colonial wars fought by the French and
English over control of North America. The war started in 1689, when the French launched a three pronged attack on British occupied Schenectady, NY, Casco Bay and Salmon Falls. However, the French failed at reaching their ultimate goal of attacking Boston. The British retaliated by attacking Acadia (now Nova Scotia) and captured Port
Royal. The war ended with the Treaty of Ryswick in 1697.
1689-1697 It is known as the 9 years war.
Big Picture Result
Little Picture Result
Even though some of the most important battles of King William's War were not fought in the colonies themselves, many English colonists were affected by the conflicts. Attacks by the French and Indians in Northern New York and New England left many colonies in a state of fear and panic. These colonies became so traumatized that they nearly tore themselves apart through a series of witch trials.The most famous witch trial was the Salem witch trials of 1692, where over 100 people were accused of selling their souls to Satan.
Native americans were also drawn into conflicts with some colonists that devastated their populations. These conflicts also played a big part in transforming the Native American societies as well.
by Josie, Spencer, and Leah
Schenectady, N.Y., Salmon Falls (in present New Hampshire), and Casco Bay (in present Maine) but failed against their main target—Boston. They raided Schenectady, New York; several villages along the Canadian border in New Hampshire and Maine; and settlements along the Maine coast. The colonists first retaliated by sending a fleet, commanded by Sir William Phips, to attack the French fort of Port Royal, Acadia (now Nova Scotia), in 1690. After the capture of Port Royal, the English prepared a combined land and sea attack on Quebec, hoping to capture French Canada.
There are 2 specific reasons why the war started first of all the Iroquois League wanted to extend their territory so that there stocks of beaver would build , enabling them to monopolize the fur trade industry. They would then trade these beaver furs to get many arms and goods from the Europeans. The second reason was because the french and english wanted to dominate the new North America, and to monopolize the popular fur trade, this was at least what the Europeans thought.
King William's War ended with the Treaty of Ryswick in 1697. The treaty returned things to the status quo before the war. For example, the British returned Port Royal to the French after they had taken it in 1690. This small peace was short-lived though, because fighting resumed a few years later in Queen Anne's War.
Sir William Phips- Miltary officer. Phips is most known for leading attacks on Port Royal and Quebec (unsuccessful).
Benjamin Church- Military officer. Church led 4 raiding parties into Acadia and most of Maine. He attacked the Acadians and their Native American Allies.
Pieter Shuyler- Military officer. Led troops in the Battle of La Prairie.
Count Frontenac-Military officer. Frontenac is known for leading a successful defense of Quebec in 1690. He also led a successful campaign of guerilla attacks on the English and Iroquois.
Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville- Military Officer. Iberville captured multiple British sailing ships and took their crew as prisoner and their stash of furs. He also led the French at battles of Acadia, Fort William Henry and the Bay of Fundy. Iberville also led the French at the Battle of Newfoundland, which nearly wiped out all British presence in the area.
As you know the French and British were not friends or allies. The most they generally did together was either battle or create treaties and or alliances. This was the case in the King William’s War. The French used their roots with the Indians to help them with man power. This was because the English had King William Phip. He sent soldiers to raid towns and kill enemies. In short the French and British only allied if it they thought it was good for them. The main reason for violence and disagreement between them was because of territory in the New World.
The French first used the Abernaki Indian from a tribe in Maine to destroy the English post Pemaquid and also attack frontier settlements. They did this because of the destruction of the St. Castine’s Trading House. When the French governor came to the colonies during his second term he found that his people had been attacked and raided by the Iroquois Indians. So during the winter of 1690 he sent three Indian war parties that later destroyed: Schenectady, a settlement in New Hampshire, and the third got control over Fort Loyal. Fort Loyal is located in present day Portland, Maine. In the same year In response Massachusetts sent out 7 ships that abolished Fort Royal. Then in May (1690) representatives came from New York, Massachusetts, Plymouth, and Connecticut to plan an attack. They attacked Montreal both with ships, and soldiers. All their attempts failed. Then four years later (1694) the French and Indians raided Falmouth (aka Portland, Maine)
King William the third allied himself with the League of Augsburg (certain German states, Spain and Sweden). The Australians and Dutch also joined in to fight against Luois XIV (the French Governor). The Iroquois Indians also helped the British raid small towns.
Their tactics were the surprise attack and siege warfare it was an effective combination that also included Aboriginal guerrilla tactics and European techniques. Guerrilla warfare is when a hole army uses very untraditional tackles. The first detachment, composed of 96 Iroquois warriors and 114 French-Canadians, left Montreal and headed due south to attack the village of Schenectady. The French and English both had there sets of alliances. The French had an alliance with the Algonquians and the Huron. The English had alliances with the Iroquois Indians.