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Coral Bleaching

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Aziz Alawadhi

on 14 January 2015

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Transcript of Coral Bleaching

Causes of Bleaching
Coral
Coral
Causes of
Bleaching
1998 Mass Bleaching Event
1998 Mass Bleaching Event
The Causes, Significance, & Solutions
Coral Bleaching
Coral Bleaching
The Causes, Significance, & Solutions
Aziz Alawadhi
Aziz Alawadhi
Coral Reefs
Coral Reefs
Most diverse marine ecosystem
1 million aquatic species around the world
Requirements for coral growth:
Latitudes 25°S and 25°N
Grow in low nutrient, shallow, agitated, clear, sunny, & warm (18°C to 30°C) waters
complex networks of mutualistic, parasitic, and commensalistic interactions
Most diverse marine ecosystem
1 million aquatic species around the world
Requirements for coral growth:
Latitudes 25°S and 25°N
Grow in low nutrient, shallow, agitated, clear, sunny, & warm (18°C to 30°C) waters
complex networks of mutualistic, parasitic, and commensalistic interactions
Kingdom:
Chromalveolata
Phylum:
Dinoflagellata
Class:
Dinophyceae
Order:
Suessiales
Family:
Symbiodiniaceae
Genus:
Symbiodinium
Kingdom:
Animalia
Phylum:
Cnidaria
Class:
Anthozoa
Kingdom:
Animalia
Phylum:
Cnidaria
Class:
Anthozoa
endosymbiosis
Zooxanthellae
Zooxanthellae
endosymbiosis
Kingdom:
Chromalveolata
Phylum:
Dinoflagellata
Class:
Dinophyceae
Order:
Suessiales
Family:
Symbiodiniaceae
Genus:
Symbiodinium
The Big Three:
Salinity
Light
Temperature
Other Causes
pH
Cyanide
Pesticides & Herbicides
Infection
The Big Three:
Salinity
Light
Temperature
Other Causes
pH
Cyanide
Pesticides & Herbicides
Infection
Bleaching
Bleaching
Coral bleaching is a process whereby the coral colonies lose their colour, either due to the loss of pigments by microscopic algae (zooxanthellae) living in symbiosis with their host organisms (polyps), or because these zooxanthellae have been expelled.
Coral bleaching is a process whereby the coral colonies lose their colour, either due to the loss of pigments by microscopic algae (zooxanthellae) living in symbiosis with their host organisms (polyps), or because these zooxanthellae have been expelled.
Society
Society
Economy
Economy
Ecology
Ecology
Research - biology, oceanography, and medicine
Medicine
Coral reefs have been used to find treatments for many cancers, viruses, cardiovascular diseases, ulcers, etc.
HIV antiviral anti-reverse transcriptase AZT
Anti-Leukemia compound Ara-C
Traditional and spiritual significance to cultures and communities which rely on coral reefs
Research - biology, oceanography, and medicine
Medicine
Coral reefs have been used to find treatments for many cancers, viruses, cardiovascular diseases, ulcers, etc.
HIV antiviral anti-reverse transcriptase AZT
Anti-Leukemia compound Ara-C
Traditional and spiritual significance to cultures and communities which rely on coral reefs
Coral Reefs globally provide $375 Billion per year in services
It is the sole provider of food, income, and protection for more than 500 million people around the wold whole live in fishing villages
Coral reefs are surrounded by low-nutrient, low-productivity waters, only source of fish
Eco-tourism
snorkeling
Diving
Natural barrier - protect shorelines, property, and lives from erosion, waves, and storm surges
Oases of high productivity and diversity in low-nutrient marine deserts, providing food and shelter. Similar to rainforests on land. Coral reefs cover less than 1% of the Earth's surface but support over 25% of the world's fish species.
Coral reefs provide protection to the coastline, allowing grass beds and mangroves forests to grow.
One of the oldest ecosystems on Earth.
20% of the world’s coral reefs have been destroyed in recent history
Additional 20% or more are severely degraded, particularly in the Caribbean Sea and Southeast Asia.
Oases of high productivity and diversity in low-nutrient marine deserts, providing food and shelter. Similar to rainforests on land. Coral reefs cover less than 1% of the Earth's surface but support over 25% of the world's fish species.
Coral reefs provide protection to the coastline, allowing grass beds and mangroves forests to grow.
One of the oldest ecosystems on Earth.
20% of the world’s coral reefs have been destroyed in recent history
Additional 20% or more are severely degraded, particularly in the Caribbean Sea and Southeast Asia.
Affected reefs surrounding Sri Lanka, Maldives, India, Tanzania, Kenya, and Seychelles.
Due to warmer than normal water temperatures in the Indian Ocean caused by an El Niño event.
1998 was one of the top 10 warmest years on record
Typically 50% mortality reported
Areas, particularly in Thailand, reported up to 90% of their corals killed
Of the 9 other years on the top 10, 8 of them were after 1998, so the warming is a trend and is getting worse
more frequent and intense temperature-caused mass bleachings
Impact on humans include large decline in fish stocks, tourism, and an increase in erosion (particularly in Maldive and Seychelle).

Coral Reefs globally provide $375 Billion per year in services
It is the sole provider of food, income, and protection for more than 500 million people around the wold whole live in fishing villages
Coral reefs are surrounded by low-nutrient, low-productivity waters, only source of fish
Eco-tourism
snorkeling
Diving
Natural barrier - protect shorelines, property, and lives from erosion, waves, and storm surges
Affected reefs surrounding Sri Lanka, Maldives, India, Tanzania, Kenya, and Seychelles.
Due to warmer than normal water temperatures in the Indian Ocean caused by an El Niño event.
1998 was one of the top 10 warmest years on record
Typically 50% mortality reported
Areas, particularly in Thailand, reported up to 90% of their corals killed
Of the 9 other years on the top 10, 8 of them were after 1998, so the warming is a trend and is getting worse
more frequent and intense temperature-caused mass bleachings
Impact on humans include large decline in fish stocks, tourism, and an increase in erosion (particularly in Maldive and Seychelle).

Top 10 Warmest Years (1880-2012)
Top 10 Warmest Years (1880-2012)
Geography of Coral Reefs
Zooxanthellae give up to 95% of their photosynthetic products to their host
Zooxanthellae give up to 95% of their photosynthetic products to their host
Cementing or apoxying crack in reef framework
Artificial Reef creation using concrete or ceramic modules, or minerals deposited on shaped wire mesh template.
Physical restoration can cost hundreds of thousands to millions of dollars per hectare.
Biological restoration is a process in which small corals are grown in in situ or ex situ nurseries, and then transplanted to the degraded area.
Cementing or apoxying crack in reef framework
Artificial Reef creation using concrete or ceramic modules, or minerals deposited on shaped wire mesh template.
Physical restoration can cost hundreds of thousands to millions of dollars per hectare.
Biological restoration is a process in which small corals are grown in in situ or ex situ nurseries, and then transplanted to the degraded area.
Solutions - Reef Restoration
Solutions - Reef Restoration
Geography of Coral Reefs
Questions?
Questions?
The most long term approach to protecting Earth's coral reefs is slowing down climate change.
Transitioning from fossil fuels renewable energy in order to circumvent the green house effect.
Global effort:
With the Chinese and Indian middle classes growing, energy demand will not be decreasing
The most long term approach to protecting Earth's coral reefs is slowing down climate change.
Transitioning from fossil fuels renewable energy in order to circumvent the green house effect.
Global effort:
With the Chinese and Indian middle classes growing, energy demand will not be decreasing
Solutions - Lean off Fossil Fuels
Solutions - Lean off Fossil Fuels
Full transcript