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Scotland In The 11th Century
Transcript of Scotland In The 11th Century
Men vs Women:
Women had very traditional roles
Society dictated what they could/needed to do
Women got paid less than men in villages
Women in towns would work with clothes
They did not have any freedom, whether they were rich or poor
They were usually treated based on their social ranks
There were many parishes.
One priest for one big area.
They got their own Bishop in the early 11th century.
Most Catholics were converted by Irish Scots.
Religious services were conducted in Latin.
People went on crusades and became pilgrims.
There was a big variety of food that made:
Mutton, veal, venison
Apples, pears, cherries
Leeks, onions, cabbages
Swans, peacocks, lampreys and porpoises
Honey was used to sweeten their dishes
Groups and Language:
The Celtics were a big tribal group in Scotland and they were divided into two groups:
They often spoke Gaelic or Latin and they were known for their literature
There were 3 main religions/beliefs in Scotland at the time:
The four elements: water, fire, earth and air.
These people did not practice a monotheistic religion.
It was mostly women who practiced this.
Renouncing worldly pursuits for devotion or for one's own devotion.
Queen Margaret, the Saxon princess, introduced the continental form of monasticism.
The Sacred People
• The High King
• The Provincial King
• The Tribal King
• The Lord
The Free Men and The Not Free
The 5 Ranks:
At the time, men were socially classified amongst 5 different ranks:
1. The King
2. The Great officer (below the King), and many earls
3. Leader: They had many estates and were managers of the royal demesne
4. The Young Lord: Free peasant farmers in the South and North of Scotland
5. Free farmers: they had smaller lands
6. The serf, who were not allowed to leave their masters’ estates without permission.
The economy during the middle age was mostly based on agriculture and short distance trades.
Trade became very popular; in fact, foreign trades increased during the middle age.
Bartering became the most popular economic activity where peasants would trade goods for goods. Near the end of this time period, bartered goods were replaced by coins.
Farming was very popular. The average land size a family would own would be 26 acres. The land was mostly used for agriculture.
Farming was very popular.
The average land size a family would own would be 26 acres.
The land was mostly used for agriculture.
Scottish Highland Games like were like the Canada Games.
Many athletic events were held during these games. Events such as the tossing of the caber where they would toss 100 pound logs.
Other events were: The weight throw, the hammer throw, the farmer's walk, tug of war and many others.
Opera performances were also a very popular form of entertainment at the time.
Arts such as literature, graphic arts and ballet were also highly practiced activities.
There many kings and queens at the time.
Each came from a different house depending on the years
Some famous kings were Macbeth 1040-1057), William l (William the Lion) (1165-1214), Malcolm ll (1005-1034)
They were very rich, however, they had many duties to fulfill:
They had to protect their people, take care of the military, take care of the finances, and take into account their country's well being.
It was also said that the kings usually stayed away from their people because there was always someone who was mad at them.
Population 5.1 million today
1.2 million in the eleventh century
The free men:
The not free:
• Hereditary Serf
Macbeth: The King Of Scotland
• Born as Mac Bethad mac Findlaich
• Born in Alba, Central Scotland, 1005
• Father: Findlaech MacRuaridh, an Earl
• Mother: Doada, 2nd daughter of Malcolm the Second
• At age fifteen, his father was assassinated by his cousins, Malcolm and Gillecongain. This was described as a violent death]
• Malcolm 2nd’s grandson, Duncan, was awarded kingship of Alba on the 30th of November,1034
• Duncan was killed in battle by Macbeth on the 15th of August, 1040. He was quite young.
• Macbeth, then ascended the throne sometime after, though he was not widely accepted
• He married Gruoch, daughter of Beoedn. Macbeth ruled for 17 years, peacefully.
• Siward, Earl of Northombria tried to dethrone Macbeth. However, he was unsuccessful.
• He was killed at the Battle of Lumphanan by Duncan’s eldest son, Malcolm Canmore, on August 15th, 1057.
The Daily Lives Of The Scotsmen
• Storytelling: Family history passed down orally.
• Harp Playing.
• Hunting and Hawking: hunting was on horses along with weapons such as spears and long-bows. Hawking was done on foot.
• Music: one not at a time on many instruments.
• Scots often left on crusades or took the roads as pilgrims.
• There were many festivals, feat days and holy religious days.
• Knights and our tournaments for jousters. It was a popular social event, which was quite popular.
• Many types of jobs such as: barbers, shoemakers, arrow-makers (for bows), hat makers, butchers and spinners.