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Deer Population: Biodiversity in Ontario
Transcript of Deer Population: Biodiversity in Ontario
Deer population in Ontario and Effects on Biodiversity
Why is it important?
There are natural causes and human-made causes
Conservation and Rehabilitation
What is biodiversity?
Is a non-renewable resource
History Deer Population
Once degraded is difficult to replace complex interactions
Extremely susceptible to degradation and loss
Is the diversity of life on earth, consisting of genetic, species and ecosystem diversity
Economic value (employment and substance), spiritual and cultural identity, intrinsic value and maintaining future options
White tailed deer most abundant species in North America
Inhabits southern parts of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Quebec, Ontario, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Alberta
Millions of dollars spent by hunters annually to hunt these deer
Physical changes to habitats: urban development
About the Deer
Feed on various hardwood trees
during summer foliage and buds of the trees
during winter limited to needles and conifers of the buds
prefer to inhabit young, regenerating forests
Yard together during the winter and will not leave
Conservation & Control (Deer)
Tunnels for deer traffic control
Deer are good at acclimation and have a high threshold limit
It is essential to maintain healthy deer populations year round in Canada
deer population could double every year if not controlled
hunting has become accepted as a method of population management
Trap and relocation
Economic, ecological, and social conflicts
severe reductions in tree regeneration
reduction in diversity of native forest herbs.
tick-borne infections to humans like Lyme disease
Ministry of Natural Resources in Ontario
Browsing influences the development of the forest
They are a significant food source for large predators and many scavengers
Hunter Safety Course
Doe/Buck license tags
Ontario Outdoors Card
History Of Human Interactions
Early 20th Century
Poor Land Practices
1930: commercial exploitation of deer became illegal
1930: Conservation programs introduced
1930: Regulated Hunting introduced
Deer tend to go beyond their carrying capacity, and becoming known as a nuisance.
Got A Buck?
abbreviation of buckskin
unit of trade between Indians and Europeans
Why is this important?
Deer have always played a role in contributing to our Economy
The Deer holds strong ecological, social, and economic importance, particularly in Ontario.
Integral part of Ontario's biodiversity
In Ontario millions of dollars have been generated through economic activities such as hunting, viewing, and tourism in regards to the deer,
Meat & Bone Marrow for their Diet
Used hides for clothing, blankets etc.
Crafted survival tools such as fishhooks, tools, and weaponry from their bones
The Native Americans taught the colonists' how to sufficiently use ALL of what the deer provides.
Over time deer populations have fluctuated
Fur trade: #'s significantly dropped
In order to keep demand native Americans were killing up to 5 million deer/year
Early 1800's: Incline in numbers were seen due to a decline in the fur trade and expansion in habitat
Late 1800's: Unrestrained hunting plummeted deer population numbers to
500 000, in some areas the buck was no longer seen
1900: Lacy Act *First wildlife law*No more trafficking venison, or other wild game.
1908: Developments of conservation furthered the protection of deer.
Great Depression: Deep populations boomed. The changing habitats were crucial and contributed to these numbers.
1970: Steady incline in deer population
1974: Doe days & anterless days
1980's-1990's: Continuous growth
Today the white tailed deer is the most widespread deer in the world.
North America's population today 20-25 million!
White-tailed deer most valued wildlife in Ontario
Contribute significant economic benefits for tourism and related businesses
Major Conflicts of Concern (Southern Ontario):
• Legal hunting does not endanger wildlife populations as many would think
• Those species that are hunted are managed sustainably
White tailed Deer
Wild life Management &
areas are undertaking habitat enhancement measures, such as prescribed burning and logging
British Columbia needs to acquire and enhance more whitetail habitats as well as protecting existing whitetail ranges
The Whitetail is a valuable and decorative feature of our ecosystems
providing safe-passage structures will help protect deer from highway traffic
this will ensure their access to seasonal habitats
This project was funded by the Habitat Conservation Trust Foundation that was created by an act of the legislature to preserve, restore, enhance, and acquire key areas of habitat for fish and wildlife throughout British Columbia.
White-tailed Deer Conflicts
Human-deer conflicts generally increase as deer populations grow in number
therefore it is an important consideration for white-tailed deer management for the future
Secret Life of
The White Tailed Deer
Today, the recovery of white-tailed deer is a premier example of successful wildlife recovery and management and hopefully into the future.
active conservation efforts
financed by governments
the recovery of white-tailed
deer has proven to be successful