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AP Biology Community and Population Ecology Project

Izabella Bank and Brian Liang
by

Brian Liang

on 3 July 2013

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Transcript of AP Biology Community and Population Ecology Project

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli
By: Brian Liang and Izabella Banka
Community and Population Ecology
Plant defenses can be mechanical or chemical.
Plant defenses
http://www.bolivia.travelphotoguide.com/2006/11/cactuses.html
Mechanical defense example: Thorns of cactus (book example)
Animal defenses are mechanisms animals use to ward off predators. Defenses can range from passive to aggressive.
Animal defenses against predators
http://waynesword.palomar.edu/opium.htm
Clown fish hide in sea anemones when a predator nears (passive, hiding)
Crows retaliate against predators by getting together and mobbing the predator (book example)
http://www.thefreequark.com/2012/07/the-crow-patrol/
http://www.tommyschultz.com/component/photo/image/philippines-4/apo-island-clown-fish-underwater-photography-21/apo-island-clown-fish-family-coral-reef-pictures-656.html
When a predator or species of prey bears a superficial resemblance to another species.
Mimicry
the close and often long-term interaction between two animals of different species
Symbiosis
a symbiotic relationship where the symbiont and the host benefit
this is a +/+ relationship
Example:
http://www.flickriver.com/photos/rachdian/3757631763/
-the bee gains food and the flower spreads its pollen
Book Example: http://www.aquariumofpacific.org/onlinelearningcenter/species/giant_flashlightfish

-the flashlight fish's light source is illuminated by bacteria, who in turn gain nutrients
Mutualism
http://www.flickriver.com/groups/uk_caterpillars/pool/interesting/
Hawk moth larvae possess a coloration that gives the
hawk moth an appearance of a snake, scaring predators away (book example).
Batesian Mimicry
Mullerian mimicry
When a harmless organism mimics a harmful one's model.
When two unpalatable (harmful) organisms mimic each other.
Parasitism
a symbiotic relationship between organisms of different species where one organism, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the other, the host
this is a +/- relationship
Example: http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/regions/central/science/sea-lamprey-lamproie-mer/index-eng.htm
Book Example: http://www.humanillnesses.com/original/T-Ty/Tapeworm.html#b
Commensalism
Biogeography
http://science.nature.nps.gov/im/units/pacn/monitoring/vs_benthic.cfm
Example:
the study of the past and present distribution of individual species and entire communities
Biogeographical Realms
(Ecozones)
Clumped:
individuals are found in patches
"safety in numbers"
Uniform:
individuals are evenly spaced
this pattern results from direct interactions between individuals
Random:
unpredictable
occurs in the absence of strong attractions or repulsions among individuals
Patterns of Dispersion
a method commonly used in ecology to estimate an animal population's size
it is most useful when it is not practical to count all of the individuals of a species in the population
What is the mark and recapture method?
Steps
Population Types
Heliconius butterflies, which store deadly poisons in their tissue, copy each other's color patterns to warn predators off.
http://www.sciencecodex.com/research_reveals_how_butterflies_copy_their_neighbors_to_fool_birds
Survivorship Curves
Population limiting factors
Factors that are affected by how dense a population is.
Density dependent factors
Type 1 Curve: low death rates during early and middle life
Type 2 curve: mortality rates are constant throughout life
Type 3 curve: high death rates during early life, leveling off for the rest of the species lifespan
The reliance of individuals of the same species on the same limited resources
Factors that are not affected by how dense the population is.
Density independent factors
Environmental features such as nutrient content, hurricanes, temperature
Intraspecific Competition
Predation
Physiological and Behavioral changes animals that the high density population induced.
Intrinsic Factors
When certain organisms, usually those near the top of the food chain, prey on other organisms.
1. Capture, mark and release a portion of the population.
2. Later, capture an equal portion of that same population.
3. Count the number of marked individuals.
4. Since the number of marked individuals within the second sample should be proportional to the number of marked individuals in the whole population, use the following formula:

# marked x total catch the second time / number of marked recaptures
Abiotic factors
http://www.vancouverisland.com/wildlife/?id=59
The lynx's predation of the snowshoe hare keeps the hare population from uncontrolled growth. Likewise, dearths in snowshoe hare regulate the lynx population to the same effect (book example).
Catfish prey on algae, regulating algae growth and preventing an oxygen-depleted body of water from forming.
http://www.exoticfishaquarium.com/algae-eating-fish/
Book Example:
http://bio1152.nicerweb.com/Locked/media/ch52/aquatic-pelagic.html
Example: http://www.serc.si.edu/labs/fish_invert_ecology/bluecrab/Population_Size_Tagging.aspx

Book Example:
http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/southwood/chapter3intro.htm
Example:
http://www.algebralab.org/practice/practice.aspx?file=Reading_SurvivorshipCurves.xml

Book Example:
http://www.google.com/imgres?q=survivorship+curves&um=1&hl=en&client=safari&sa=N&rls=en&biw=1276&bih=668&tbm=isch&tbnid=0aRycd3usjXNDM:&imgrefurl=http://mycozynook.com/102RGCh36OH.htm&docid=PTaRVbW_d19vgM&imgurl=http://mycozynook.com/36_03bSurvivorshipCurves-L.jpg&w=1404&h=991&ei=QJNfUNiwC8HQrQfdp4HIDQ&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=4&sig=109777736604510186961&page=1&tbnh=133&tbnw=188&start=0&ndsp=17&ved=1t:429,r:15,s:0,i:147&tx=102&ty=26
http://www.fotoartglamour.com/picture-mature-wheat-heads-in-august.html
Farmers apply fertilizer to wheat to lower the amount of nutrient requirements each plant needs, reducing intraspecific competition (book example).
http://retrieverman.wordpress.com/2012/06/05/the-tale-of-two-mice/
White footed mice experience aggressive interactions and hormonal changes that delay sexual maturation at high population densities (book example).
http://www.microq.com/articles/tag/cell-culture-shipping/
Cells in a cell culture, when allowed to grow uncontrollably, eventually begin to die as a result of resource exhaustion and competition until cell population goes back down to sustainable levels.
http://thoreaugrass.blogspot.com/2007_09_01_archive.html
Drought stress kills similar proportions of the dune fescue grass population regardless of population density (book example).
http://www.maine.gov/ifw/wildlife/species/deer/feeding_deer.htm
Winter kills many white-tailed deer, regardless of population density, due to the seasonal-induced scarcity of plants that the herbivorous deers primarily eat.
http://www.nps.gov/amis/naturescience/animals.htm
Minnesota jackrabbits experience hypertension and enter convulsive seizures or comatose states when population densities become too high.
http://decodedscience.com/animals-in-disguise-an-introduction-to-camouflage-and-mimicry/1327
This harmless beetle, Clytus arietes, mimics a stinging wasp.
Chemical Example:
Opium Poppy produces morphine.
Book and Outside Example:
http://smabiology.blogspot.com/2009/01/ch-52-biomes-ch-53-population-ecology.html
a symbiotic relationship where one organism benefits without affecting the other
this is a +/0 relationship
Example:
http://ap-bio-patrick-steed.wikispaces.com/Mutualism,+Parasitism,+and+Commensalism+Q-30
Book Example: http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/photo-contest/2011/entries/113986/view/
Eqiulibrial Populations (K-selected): likely to be living at a density near the limit imposed by their resources

Example: http://www.awf.org/content/wildlife/detail/elephant

Book Example:
http://blog.tauedu.org/humans-are-something-special/#axzz27KpLQsA7

Opportunistic Populations (R-selected populations): likely to be found in variable enviornments in which population density fluctuates

Example: http://www.organic-herbal-remedies.com/dandelion-herb.htm

Book Example: http://www.occc.edu/biologylabs/Documents/Homeostasis/Lynx%20and%20Hare%20Populations.htm
the broadest divisions of the Earth's land surface
(based on distributional patterns of terrestrial organisms)
http://www.nevillecoleman.com.au/dive-travel-destinations--scuba-diving---snorkeling/australia-diving/new-south-wales/port-stephens.aspx
The harmful tiger fish, Common Loinfish mimics a harmful octopus.
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