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Information Literacy

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Kevin Moore

on 6 January 2018

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Transcript of Information Literacy

Library Research Skills
Eliot D. Pratt Library - Goddard College
to the library!
IL Skills Summit
Good Luck!
What is information literacy?
- Who is the author? What are the author's qualifications? Has their work been cited by others? What organization do they work for?

- Is the information accurate? Is it supported by evidence? Can claims be verified?

- Who is the intended audience? Why was this created? Who funded the research? Does this affect the way the information is presented?

- When was it created? Is the information outdated? Has the source been updated recently? Has it been superceded by more recent findings? Depending on the subject area, currency may not matter as much.

- Did the author cite sources? Who did they cite? Are the author's sources reliable?

- How is the resource relevant to your research? Is the information at the appropriate level of depth for your needs?

Publication format
- Where was it published? In what format(s)?

- Is there author bias? What biases, prejudices or conflicts of interest might have swayed the manner in which the information was collected or interpreted? Research findings can be interpreted differently, depending on the viewpoint and agenda of the interpreter. Are you aware of your own bias?
Critical Evaluation of Resources
Research as Inquiry
Keep in mind that research is an iterative, non-linear process.

It is normal to redefine and narrow the scope of your research topic along the way.

Begin by reading encyclopedia articles either in print or online to familiarize yourself with the topic.

Make a list of search terms (keywords).
Real World Relevance
Good news! Information literacy is not a set of skills that you will learn and rarely use again after you graduate.

In fact, information literacy skills will enhance your life in myriad ways. From making an online purchase to writing a successful academic essay, researching online is an incredibly useful skill to have.

Nearly every aspect of our lives requires information literacy skills to make the most informed choices and decisions.

We are constantly called on to evaluate sources of information to determine their credibility, purpose, validity, and currency.

You will be prepared to become a lifelong learner, informed consumer, and empowered citizen!
Information literacy is the set of integrated abilities encompassing the reflective discovery of information, the understanding of how information is produced and valued, and the use of information in creating new knowledge and participating ethically in communities of learning.

- ACRL Framework for Information Literacy in Higher Education (2015)

full-text searching
, the database will look for the terms that occur anywhere in an article.

Full-text searching will usually provide the largest number of results, but many may be irrelevant.

Another option is
field searching
. A record in a database consists of several parts, or fields, that can be searched individually.

These fields include
Title, Author, Subject, Abstract
, and more.

Using field searching will narrow your search results to just the field you select.
Scholarly Sources
Peer-reviewed scholarly articles are typically considered the most reliable sources of information because they have been reviewed by experts in the field.

Reading academic journal articles and books is different than reading more popular items. No need to read cover-to-cover!

Reading scholarly materials efficiently helps you get the most out of your sources and increases your understanding of your subject.
Citation Tips & Management Tools
Some common citation styles include APA, MLA, and Chicago.

Each one requires you to include similar types of information, but may differ slightly in the details, such as the way components are ordered or formatted.

APA is common in the sciences and social sciences.

MLA usually is used in English, literature, and other humanities disciplines.

Consult your syllabus and your professor.

Purdue OWL https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/

APA Style http://www.apastyle.org/learn/faqs/index.aspx
Copyright protection generally covers original works in a fixed format, such as music, novels, films, images, plays, art, etc.

Copyright is not an indefinite protection. In the United States, for works created after 1978, it generally lasts 70 years past the life of the creator.

U.S. Copyright Office

Creative Commons
We are here for you on your journey
Email, call, and use the library's website.

Visit the library during residencies!

Call 1-800-468-4888 x 208

Email library@goddard.edu or kevin.moore@goddard.edu

Website: https://www.goddard.edu/lits/

Keep track of your sources as you go.
Jot down quotes with page #'s, title, author, date, etc.
Use citation management software:
Academic Integrity
Anytime you use another person's words or ideas, you must cite them both in the text of your paper and in a works cited list at the end of your paper. This is true for both quotations and paraphrased ideas.

Intellectual property
is an idea or invention that comes from someone's mind. Respecting another's hard work and intellectual output is ethical behavior, and it also benefits you if someone references your work in the future.

This is where the notion of
comes into play. When you use someone else's intellectual property, you must properly give them credit by attributing their work in your publication.
How to cite
in-text citation
provides basic information about a source.

When you cite a source within your paper, you record key elements that will allow your reader to know where you found your information and who influenced your work.

The exact information depends on the citation style but always will include the author and sometimes the date or page number.

at the end of your research paper includes complete information about each resource you borrowed ideas or data from.

The components you will need to include will vary depending on the type of source you are using and the citation style, but generally include information about the author, title, and publication details.

For a printed item like a book, you will generally be able to find the information you need on the cover or the first few pages inside, such as the copyright page.

For an electronic resource, details usually can be found in the header or footer of the website. You can also consult the About page of the website.

Why cite sources?
Citations let your readers know how you gathered your data and how you arrived at your conclusions.

Citations enhance your argument and provide support for your ideas.

When faculty members and other academics read your work, they want to be able to follow the thread of research, to see how your ideas fit within the ongoing conversation in the field.

Your citations can be followed to discover the sources used to develop ideas. Tracing the citations through multiple articles or books can provide an overview and history of the topic.

This idea of
scholarship as a conversation
means you have a voice in this exchange of ideas and a responsibility to other researchers to give them credit for the work you use to build your own ideas.
Cliffs of Citations
Reassurance Ridge
Boolean Slopes
Copyright Crest
Public Domain & Fair Use
Works in the
public domain
either do not meet the requirements for copyright or their copyright protection has expired. Sources from the public domain can generally be used without permission but still require attribution. Many classics are in the public domain.

Fair use
is a limitation to copyright law that allows users to copy a work (a portion or in full) without asking the owner for permission. You can refer to the following 4 factors to determine if you have a case for fair use:

1. The purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes.
2. The nature of the copyrighted work (courts tend to favor fair use when the work is non-fiction in nature).
3. The amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole.
4. The effect of the use upon the potential market for, or value of, the copyrighted work.

Limit Your Search
These include:
Intended audience
These are good places to start for background information on your topic and learning terminology.
Scour bibliographies of online encyclopedia entries for articles & books relevant to your research.
Use advanced search options in Google, Bing, etc.
Beware that Google ranks websites based upon popularity and other factors rather than relevance.
Google, Wikipedia, WWW
Information has value
The creation of information products requires a significant commitment of time, original thought, and research.

Being an ethical user of information requires you to show respect for the time, labor and intellectual property of others.

That is why it is so important to use sources in a responsible and ethical manner by attributing credit where credit is due.

It works both ways. Your creations are protected too!
Natural language & Boolean operators
Once you have generated some keywords for your topic, it's time to string them together in a search engine.

Some library resources use
natural language searching
. You are probably already familiar with this technique — commercial search engines such as Google use natural language searching.

While natural language searching may be the easiest method to use, it is generally not the most accurate or efficient.

To get more precise search results, try connecting keywords using
Boolean operators
. They may be familiar to you from mathematics or logic.

There are
three Boolean operators: AND, OR, and NOT


traditional medicine
mental health

post traumatic stress disorder

historical fiction
juvenile fiction
literary criticism
Nesting & Quotation Marks
is a technique where you combine Boolean operators within parentheses ( ), like mathematical equations.

This allows you to search for multiple variations of keywords, according to the functions of the operators.

For example, you could search for the following:
• (
) AND (
Han Dynasty

When searching for a phrase of two or more words, use
quotation marks
around the phrase. The results will include results containing those words in that exact order. This helps the accuracy of your search.

When you don't put the phrase in quotations, the search will also include instances where the words appear separately, which may be irrelevant.
Keywords reflect the main topic(s) of your research question. It helps to brainstorm multiple keywords related to your topic. Are there different words or phrases that describe what you are looking for?

There may be various keywords to describe your topic, and some library resources may use different terminology than what we think is the obvious choice.

Use a thesaurus to help you find synonyms. You will come across useful search terms as you go.

Omit non-essential words, as they are very common and may not help narrow your search.

You may need to repeat your search several times using different combinations of keywords.

On the first search, you may not know all the right words to use or the best places to look. It is common to feel uncertain initially and that's okay.
Limiter Ledge
Keyword Crag
Open Web vs. Hidden Web
Primary or Secondary Source?
Works Cited
Association of College & Research Libraries. ACRL Logo. Retrieved from http://www.ala.org/acrl/

Cicero, Marcus Tullius. Quotable quote. Goodreads. Retrieved from http://www.goodreads.com/quotes/7570-if-you-have-a-garden-and-a-library-you-have

Fiore, Elisa. Quotation marks. PublicDomainPictures.net. Retrieved from http://www.publicdomainpictures.net/view-image.php?image=41872&picture=quotation-marks

Ferlic, Janko. Books with hanging light bulbs. Unsplash Retrieved from https://unsplash.com/search/books?photo=sfL_QOnmy00.

Google, Inc. (2015). Google logo. Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Google_2015_logo.svg

Haren, Shonn. Primary sources. Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Primary_Sources.png

Haren, Shonn. Secondary sources. Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Information_literacy#/media/File:Secondary_Sources.png

Hyeok, Jeong Gu. Keyboard with key. Pixabay. Retrieved from https://pixabay.com/en/keyboard-key-success-online-621830/

Lin, James.(2005). Reading on the grass 1. FreeImages. Retrieved from http://www.freeimages.com/photo/reading-on-the-grass-1-1554151

Linforth, Peter. Question mark man. Pixabay. Retrieved from https://pixabay.com/en/question-mark-why-question-1829459/

Muffett, Tarresa. 8 essential steps in research process. Visual.ly. Retrieved from https://visual.ly/community/infographic/education/8-essential-steps-research-process

Noble, Glen. Stacks of books. Unsplash. Retrieved from https://unsplash.com/search/books?photo=o4-YyGi5JBc

Ohio University Libraries. How Boolean operators impact search terms. Retrieved from https://www.library.ohiou.edu/archive/2013/11/research-tips-how-i-search-for-information/

University of North Carolina Greensboro. (2012). UNCG Video. Retrieved from

Unknown. Copyright symbol. Pixabay. Retrieved from https://pixabay.com/en/copyright-icon-license-intellectual-98570/

Waupaca High School Instructional Media Center. When do you cite? Retrieved from http://whsimc.weebly.com/citing-sources.html

Wiggler, Logga. Key chain close up. Pixabay. Retrieved from https://pixabay.com/en/key-keychain-close-up-123554

Wikipedia. (2017). Wikipedia logo. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Wikipedia_logos
Another way to narrow your search is by adding limiters. Most databases will have a feature that allows you to limit your search by different factors.
Choose limits by thinking about what types of sources will help you achieve your research goals and avoid irrelevant results.

Conducting a search using limits will usually lead to fewer results, but the results you retrieve will be more relevant to your specific research needs.

You can implement limits before or after searching.
The "
Open Web
" contains sites that are freely available with no special login or security. Anyone can publish to the web - regardless of their knowledge of a subject.

The "
Hidden Web
" contains all the websites that are protected and require credentials to access. Subscriptions to scholarly information are part of the hidden web. Most can only be accessed with student or faculty credentials. Your tuition pays for access to the highest quality research available.
Frameworks of Information Literacy
Authority is constructed and contextual
Scholarship as a conversation
Research as inquiry
Information creation as a process
Searching as strategic exploration
Information has value
Subject Searching
subject headings
to search electronic databases more efficiently and effectively.

After finding some relevant resources via keyword searches, take a look at the subject headings for your best resources.

Then, go back and change the keyword field to subject and insert the subject headings you found.

Now you will find more relevant search results for your research topic.
"If you have a garden and a library, you have everything you need." - Cicero
Learning Objectives
Students will be able to…

Define information literacy and understand the new IL framework.
Identify scholarly information using consciously selected criteria.
Determine whether information should be incorporated into an assignment and/or be trusted.
Determine potential bias of an information source.
Perform additional research to verify information.
Choose search tools that will allow for most effective multimedia searching.
Evaluate information resources for authority, currency, relevance, purpose, perspective and other critical criteria.
Recognize bias in information resources.
Differentiate between natural language searching and subject searches.
Limit their search results based on format, date, subject, and more.
Differentiate between primary and secondary sources, recognizing how their use and importance vary with each discipline.
Exploit electronic databases efficiently and effectively.
Understand the value of utilizing library databases and resources instead of commercial search engines, wikis, blogs, social media and other web content.
Cite print and non-print resources with discipline appropriate citation styles.
Define plagiarism and academic integrity.
Understand the institution’s expectations of academic integrity and consequences of acting dishonorably.
Search the library's catalog for books, A/V materials:

Search the library's databases for scholarly articles:

Consult the library's research guides in your subject area:

Use the resources in your program's website:
Where to begin? The Big 4
Keywords (cont.)
Keywords are emboldened in the research question below:

flu shots
healthcare workers

One search tool might use the keyword phrase "flu shot" and another might use "influenza vaccine." There are also several synonyms for mandatory (obligatory, compulsory, required, necessary) and healthcare workers (provider, practitioner, professional, doctors, nurses, health care, etc.)

Develop a list of several keywords for each main idea in your research question. Mix and match them in the library database search boxes using advanced search.
Full-text searching vs. Field searching
Purpose of Research
Research is a quest for understanding.

Humans are wired to be curious. We have a thirst for knowledge along with an innate desire for meaning and truth. Research work has the potential to fulfill these needs and more, which is why it holds so much value for those who undertake it.

Formal research, also known as applied research, involves methodical and systematic inquiry to build a new or deeper understanding of a topic.

It also allows us to present convincing arguments to influence the way others see the world, by producing an evidenced-based rationale that has the power to instigate change.

Being able to find information effectively, and knowing how to critically analyze what we find, is an important part of being an effective distance learner.
Diversify Your Resources
Learning how to combine information from different sources, both online and offline, is an important part of being an independent and critical thinker, as well as a good researcher.

Gathering information from many sources will help you to understand diverse perspectives, and come to your own conclusions regarding the questions you have posed.

This approach results in the development of a more well-rounded understanding of the topic which will evolve over time.

Try to use a variety of sources such as books, articles, artwork, conferences, YouTube videos, online newspapers and journals, podcasts, blogs, TEDTalks, industry reports, government websites, and more.
Even before you have finalized your research question, you will be on a quest to discover what studies have previously been undertaken and what evidence is already available.

Just because research findings or an article has been published, there is no guarantee that you’re reading accurate, quality evidence.

Much of the information that can be found on the internet has been placed there without verification.

The best way to ensure that the information you find is accurate is to locate, evaluate and use reputable sources.

For example, it is best to use websites, journals, books and other sources created by organizations or individuals who are respected within their discipline.

It is not always easy to determine an author or organization's level of expertise or agenda.

The key is to remain actively discerning when reviewing resources and findings related to your research problem.
Finding Reliable Sources of Information
As a researcher, you need to be able to think critically about the resources and information you use in your work.

You need to ask the right questions when reading the work of others; you need the ability to weigh different arguments and perspectives and use evidence to inform your own opinions, theories and ideas.

Critical thinking is about questioning and learning with an open mind.

Curiosity, perseverance, self-awareness and an ability to remain open to new ideas and ways of thinking will serve you well.
Critical Thinking
Formal research requires a significant commitment, so it’s important to undertake a project you’re passionate about.

Your area of research needs to feel worthwhile in order to maintain your interest. This helps maximize the potential for personal enjoyment and perseverance throughout the research process, even when the going gets tough.

What are you passionate about?

What do you value?

What issues concern you most in the world, your community and your workplace?

What problem would you like to see something done about?
Developing a Research Question
The type of research question you ask determines the kind of data you will gather. Depending on the nature and context of your question, you may be collecting quantitative data, qualitative data or a mixture of both.

Quantitative research approaches require you to collect data by measuring something (an event or phenomena) and then using numbers to represent it. If you are looking for evidence to confidently solve problems relating to ‘how many?’, ‘how often?’ and ‘what?’, you need quantitative research.

Quantitative research involves using tools like surveys, questionnaires and tests. It will allow you to gather and analyse statistical data, such as percentages, frequency and averages, to support your research conclusions.

If you’re looking to dig deeper and find out ‘how’ or ‘why’ as part of your research, then qualitative research approaches are the way to go. As the name suggests, qualitative research involves collecting descriptive information on the ‘quality’ of things, such as people’s experiences, feelings and motivations.

Qualitative research requires you to collect evidence through approaches such as focus groups, observation, and in-depth interviews.

Both research approaches have their strengths and weaknesses, which is why many researchers use a mixed-method approach.

Regardless of the approaches and tools used, the key with formal research is to collect robust evidence systematically and analyse it methodically. Keep in mind, some data provides greater insight or a more reliable indication of what you’re trying to measure than others.
Research Methods
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