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The Age Of Enlightenment

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Chanler Hughart

on 9 October 2012

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Transcript of The Age Of Enlightenment

The Age Of Enlightenment human reason Natural law used to combat ignorance discoverable by reason was applied to theories of ethics politics civil law and religious morality The Age Of Reasoning was an 18th century movement followed hard after the mysticism, religion, and superstition of the middle ages represented a genesis in the way man viewed him self, the pursuit of knowledge and the universe Enlightened Thinkers Thomas
Hobbes wrote the leviathan the leviathan stated that people are natraly cruel, greedy, selfish, and that life without rules would be very bad for mankind. He believed that to escape this bad world, people must enter into a social contract and the government must have all the power to enforce this contract. Social Contract: An agreement by which they gave up their freedoms in order to have an organized society John
Locke Montesquieu
(Baron De Montesquieu) had a vary optimistic view on human nature thought people were reasonable and moral Natural Law the rights that are given to everyone at birth “Man... hath by nature a power
.... to preserve his property - that is, his life, liberty, and estate - against the injuries and attempts of other men.” this book argued that people should be able to form a government that would protect their natural rights in his opinion we needed a government with limited power that was accepted by all citizens Absolute monarchy "A government has an obligation to the people it governs, if a government fails its obligations its people can overthrow it." this quote influenced some of Americas founding fathers such as..... Ben Franklin Thomas Jefferson John Adams Voltaire (Francios-Marie Arouet) Diderot Rousseau Adam
Smith studied governments in Europe (from Italy to England) also studied mid evil Europe learned about chinese and native american cultures this book by Baron De Montesquieu discussed different types of government Separation Of
Powers Barron also believed in the separation of powers which is when a government is split into three separate branches Checks And Balances is when one branch keeps the other ones in check government Legislative
Branch Judicial
Branch Executive
Branch Separation of powers exposed the abuses of power during his time period he exposed corrupt officials and pointed out ideal aristocrats battled inequality, injustice, and superstition detested slave trade and deplored religious prejudice his actions offended the roman catholic church and the country of France because of his actions he was kicked out of France and excommunicated form the church many of his books were banned because the government officials thought it was false was a strong believer in FREEDOM OF SPEECH French philosopher founded and edited the encyclopedia Dennis Diderot there were 24 volumes of the encyclopedia there were more than 4000 copies of the encyclopedia sold even tho it was banned in France Jean-Jacques Rousseau he thought the the natrual state of people was good also thought natural innocence was corrupted by the evils of society many people like the fact that he opposed the unfair distribution of property wrote the social contract which in it he said that society put to many limitations on its people in it he also stated that control was necessary but at a minimal he also thought that only governments that were freely elected were fit to rule people general will-the consent of the people also thought the welfare of the people was above the individual interests hated political and economical opression wrote the wealth of nations wanted to use free market to regulate business activity thought supply and demand should drive the government and market Laissez faire - means government hands off The Spread Of Enlightenment Books Salons An informal gathering place for people wanting to learn or socialize Talking Pamphlets smaller than books but packed with a lot of information Art Styles Baroque Rococo Grand, ornate style of art from the Greeks & Romans Baroque paintings were huge colorful and full of excitement Piazza San Marco Canaletto (Italian, 1697–1768) The Preaching of Saint John the Baptist Bartholomeus Breenbergh (Dutch) some more Baroque paintings... The Abduction of the Sabine Women Nicolas Poussin (French, 1594–1665) Saint John the Baptist Preaching Mattia Preti (Italian, Neapolitan, 1613–1699) Unlike Baroque, Rococo was lighter and more elegant In salons, Rococo was believed to encourage the imagination The Embarcation for Cythera A. Watteau The Italian Comedians Antoine Watteau some more Rococo paintings... Madame Bergeret François Boucher Diana and Endymion Jean-Honoré Fragonard Enlightened Despots Frederick The Great exerted very tight control over his subjects during his reign as king of Prussia from 1740-1786 praised Voltaire's work and invited him and several french intellectuals to Prussia very tolerant of religious differences and reduced the use of torture, he also allowed free press desired a stronger monarchy and more power for himself Catherine The Great empress of russia read the works of philosophers and exchanged letters with Voltaire and Diderot abolished torture and established religious tolerance in her land torture refused to give up power her main political contribution was to expand the empire Joseph II successor and son of Maria Theresa,the empress of Austria was an eager student of enlightenment and he traveled in disguise among his subjects to learn their projects continued the work of his mother by helping to modernize Austria's government supported religious equality for protestants and jews in the Catholic empire, despite opposition ended censorship be allowing free press and attempted to bring the catholic church under royal control Text book
harvard.edu By Brayden And Hug(Chanler)
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