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# Woodlice

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by

## Emma Leever

on 28 March 2013

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#### Transcript of Woodlice

1.Set up choice chamber, placing and numbering a filter paper in each chamber.
2.Set up the video camera to focus directly on the chambers.
3.Using the tweezers, place the woodlice on the center chamber.
4.Begin recording the woodlice movements on the video camera and observe for three minutes. Record the number of woodlice in each area every 30 seconds.
5.Remove the bugs from the choice chamber. Replace the filter paper and label it. Repeat the experiment with wet and dry, and dark and light conditions.
Note: Setup may vary depending on the experiment. See Exceptions below.
6.Once done with the experiment, release the pill bugs back to the place where they were captured.
7.Graph the data in a bar graph to compare.
8.Conduct statistical tests to compare with the control group’s movements
9.Discuss conclusions and sources of error.

Procedure Exceptions
1.Light vs. Dark
a.Label the polar ends of choice chambers light and dark.
b.When you set up the choice chambers, set it up in a dark room and place a lamp at one end, turn it on so that the light only hits 2 and a half chambers.
2.Wet vs. Dry
a.Label the polar ends of choice chambers wet and dry.
b.Cut the center paper in half and place the halves side by side. Using the pipette, drip 1 ml of water evenly, so that it becomes damp. Do this in the dishes the two dishes labeled wet and half of the center one. Introduction Hypothesis:
If the woodlice are given the choice between different environmental conditions, between damp and dry, they will move toward and stay in the damp area, and between light and dark, they will move toward and stay in the dark area, because that is their preferred environment in nature.

Variables:
Independent variable:
The differing environments in which the woodlice are placed.
Dependent variable:
The movement of the woodlice toward or away from the environments.
Control Variables
The number of woodlice placed in each environment.
The time for which the group of woodlice is tested in each environment.
The type of woodlice used.
The temperature of the environments.
The humidity of the environments.

Control Group:
Observe the bug's interactions for the three minutes as a control group so it can be seen how they interact in the choice chamber without any changes in the environment. The number of woodlice in each area should be recorded every 30 seconds to observe the changes in their movement when their is not two different environments that they can go in. Introduction Our data implies that woodlice prefer to be in light, damp locations. We know this because organisms tend to stay in environments they prefer. According to the damp vs. dry data, more woodlice stayed within the damp area. According to the light vs. dark data, more woodlice could be found within the light environment compared to the dark environment. Half of our hypothesis is supported by this data. We predicted that the woodlice would prefer the dark environment over the light environment, however we did correctly predict that the woodlice would choose the damp environment over the dry one.
Looking at the light vs. dark data, if the statistical t-tests are regarded, when compared to the control groups, there is no statistical difference in the woodlice’s preference of the environments. When the data for the two environments in each trial are compared, light and dark show a figure that is ‘not quite statistically significant,’ just like when compared to the controls. However, the woodlice movements in the damp and dry environments show the difference to be extremely statistically significant, displaying that the woodlice do have a stronger preference for the damp environment.
This displays taxis and kinesis as the woodlice reflexively moved toward the damp environment (taxis), and stayed there (kinesis). There are a couple reasons to justify why the results show woodlice prefer the light environment over the dark one. A possible source of error would be that some of the woodlice crawled into the shade cast in the light area, so they were technically in a darker area, but were still in close proximity to light.
Other sources of error include that in the first trial, some of the woodlice in both the damp and the dry environments, crawled under the filter paper as they prefer darker environments. This interfered with the measurements of the woodlice environmental preference as they could not always be found if they were underneath. A possible solution to this would be to tape the filter paper down to the areas so it would be impossible for the bugs to crawl underneath them. We also didn’t use very many woodlice, which made it hard to collect accurate data. More woodlice would give us more information to work with. It would be interesting to now test for other preferences of the pillbug aside from their movements, like what type of food they prefer and it would be interesting to test different age groups of woodlice to see if there preferences or movements change with age. Methodology Results Results By: Bani Sapra, Andie Condie,
Emma Leever, and Miyuki Kimura The Effects of Environmental Conditions on the Movement of Woodlice Research Question: If woodlice are placed under different environmental conditions (dark, light, dry, or wet), which conditions will they prefer? Quantitative Data: Background:
Qualitative Data: T-test Control Data: Ethology is the study of animal behavior. Part of this includes the study of animal movements, such as in taxis, and kinesis. Taxis is the reflexive movement of an animal away or toward a place in response to a stimuli. Kinesis is the change in the speed of movement, in response to a stimuli. Organisms will linger in environments they prefer.
The subjects used to test these animal movements will be Porcellionides pruinosus, more commonly known as woodlice. These isopods are common, and can be found in dark environments, such as under bark or stone. They mainly eat rotting vegetation and they breathe through gill-like structures, for this reason, they live in moist habitats. Woodlice need moisture because they rapidly lose water by excretion and through their cuticle.
In this experiment, 10 woodlice will be tested in their response to stimuli, and their movement toward or away from stimuli to determine their preference for whichever environment. Their response to the light they are exposed to will be tested, as they will be in a dark room, with a light shining from one end. The number of woodlice that retreat from, or move toward the light will be recorded in response. Similarly, a petri dish with one section of it damp, and the other section dry, will be used to test the woodlice response to the dry environment.
Given the environments that woodlice are typically found in, it is predicted that their response to a dry environment would be to rapidly move toward the damp environment, and that the woodlice in the damp section of the petri dish would be likely to stay in that section and not move out of it. As woodlice typically live under bark or stone, it is predicted that their reflexive response to the light shone on them would be to retreat from this light. Bibliography: Brown, Courtney Jane. "Armadillidium Vulgarepillbug." Animal Diversity Web.
N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2013. <http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/

Potter, Michael F. "Sowbugs and woodlice." University of Kentucky College of
Agriculture. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2013. <http://www.ca.uky.edu/
entomology/entfacts/ef439.asp>.

Raven, Peter H., George B. Johnson, and Kenneth A. Mason. "Chapter 55- Behavioral Biology." Biology. Boston: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2007. N. pag. Print. Filter paper (15 pieces- 5 for each trial)
Scissors
Marker/pen
Lamp
Pipette
Water (1 ml)
10 woodlice
Container for the Woodlice
Choice Chamber
Stopwatch
Tweezers
Dark room or box for a dark environment
Video camera (Tripod is Optional) Procedure: Materials: Safety Measures: Have caution while using scissors and tweezers.
Ethical Issues: Have care when picking up woodlice and do not stab them with the tweezers. Safety: Thanks for watching! Damp vs. Dry Light vs. Dark Test Control Test Regarding the graphs representing the data from each trial, the majority of the woodlice stayed or moved to the damp environment when it was tested along with the dry environment. There were consistently more woodlice found within the damp environment over the dry one. At its maximum, there were 6 more woodlice within the damp environment and at at all times, there was at least a difference of two woodlice between the damp and dry environments. The biggest difference occurs at 90 seconds and the woodlice spread out more after that. The graph for the control group varied constantly, showing a majority of woodlice on one side, and then the majority of the woodlice switched to the other side after the first 90 seconds. There is the biggest difference in woodlice at this time. At the end of the tests, after 3 minutes or 180 seconds, the woodlice on each side are exactly the same. This represents fairly consistent movement of the woodlice as they would not have a particular preference since there was no difference in the two environments as it was not manipulated. Interesting data comes out of the graph depicting the test between whether woodlice preferred the light or dark environment. According to the data, it appears that more woodlice were found in the light environment. The only time this isn’t true is at 150 seconds, when more woodlice can be found in the dark environment, as expected. The biggest difference in pillbug amounts occurs at 1 minute, when there is 6 more woodlice within the light environment then there are within the dark environment. Interestingly, after 30 seconds, the woodlice were evenly spread between the two environments. Discussion (Number of Woodlice) (Number of Woodlice) (Number of Woodlice) (Number of Woodlice) (Number of Woodlice) (Number of Woodlice)
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