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Sex Linked Diseases
Transcript of Sex Linked Diseases
X Chromosome Inactivation
Sex Linked Diseases
There is a special
pattern of inheritance
for genes located on the
X and Y chromosome
Since these chromosomes determine
located on them are said to be
are located on the
of any one of these genes
produces colorblindness (an inability to distinguish certain colors).
that makes it so that a person's
blood is unable to clot properly.
This can lead to people
bleeding to death from minor cuts
and may result in them suffering
internal bleeding from a simple bump or bruise.
for cells in
how does the cell "adjust" the
100 sex-linked genetic disorders
have now been mapped to the
chromosome. The human
Y chromosome is much smaller
and appears to contain only a
select few genes.
form is a
which is found in about
1 in 10 males
in the U.S. Among
however, colorblindness is
rare (only around 1 female in every 100)
Why this difference?
Males have just one X
all X-linked alleles are expressed in males, even if they are recessive
In order for a
(like the one for colorblindness) to be expressed in
, there must be
two copies of the allele
(one on each of the two chromosomes).
This means that the
sex-linked genetic disorder
tends to be much
more common among males
than females. In addition, because
men pass on
chromosome to their
, the woman is called a
she herself does not have the disease.
Sex-linked diseases move from fathers --> daughters --> sons of the daughters
The reason this happens is that
two important genes carried on the X
control blood clotting
either of the genes
may produce the
1 in 10,000 males
is born with a form of
one X chromosome is randomly switched off
so there is
only one working copy of an X
chromosome. This is true for humans and other mammals.
, for example, a
that controls the
color of coat spots
is located on the
chromosome may have
an allele for orange spots
and the other may have
an allele for black spots
In cells in
some parts of the body, one X
while in other parts of the body
the other X
As a result, the
will have a
mixture of orange and black spots.