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Diversity project


simon pozsonyi

on 20 February 2013

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Transcript of Diversity project

Manatees are marine mammals that live in warm, tropical and subtropical waters from Florida to the Amazon Distribution Physical Characteristics Manatees grow to be about 10-12 feet long and can weigh between 800 to 1,200 pounds
Females tend to be larger than the males Manatee Vs Beluga Whale VS Physical
Characteristics Male belugas can grow from 11 to 15 feet long and weigh about 3,300 pounds
Female belugas tend to be smaller than males. They can grow from 9 to 13 feet and weigh about 3000 pounds
Belugas reach their full size around 10 years of age Diet and Eating Habits Belugas are carnivores.
They eat fish, squid, crustaceans, octopus and worms
Belugas eat 40-60 pounds of food each day
Belugas have 34 peg-shaped teeth that they use for grabbing and tearing their prey
Belugas don't chew, they swallow their prey whole

Belugas search for food at or near the bottom of shallow water
Belugas have a flexible neck that allows them to look all the way around while searching for food on the ocean floor
Belugas can create suction and a strong jet of water from their mouths that helps dislodge prey from the bottom
Beluga whales also hunt schools of fish
Together, they herd fish into shallow water and then attack
Researchers have found things such as tree bark, plants, stones and paper in the bellies of belugas, likely from feeding on the ocean floor Communication and Echolocation Color Manatees are grey in color
Some breeds have white or pink patches on the belly and chest
Barnacles and algae may grow on the skin of adult Manatees Color Belugas are born dark grey and become darker after the first month
During the first 2 years of life, belugas turn from grey to blue
At the age of 6, the beluga's skin begins to change color and by the time they have reached maturity at the age of 13, the beluga is nearly all white Beluga whales are marine mammals that live in the coastal waters of the Arctic ocean and subarctic seas Distribution Diet and Eating Habits Manatees are herbivores and drink freshwater
They eat water plants including turtle grass, mangrove leaves, algae and acorns
Manatees eat 32 - 108 pounds of food each day
Some manatees fast up to 7 months during dry seasons when there is little vegetation

Manatees feed off the bottom, the middle and at the surface of the water.
They use their front flippers and large flexible lips to collect the vegetation.
Horny, ridged pads on the roof of the manatee's mouth and lower jaw break the vegetation into smaller pieces and then the molars grind the food

Because Manatees are hard on their teeth, they have "marching molars" which are flat surfaced grinding teeth that grow in at the back of the jaw. As the teeth wear down, they move towards the front. When the teeth reach the front, they fall out and are replaced by new migrating teeth Reproduction Reproduction Beluga whales rely on both sending out and receiving sounds to navigate, communicate, locate breathing holes and hunt in dark or murky waters
Belugas are very vocal. They are nicknamed "sea canaries" because of their songs and chatter, which can be heard above water and through the hulls of ships
Their songs help them talk with other belugas and include many odd sounds ranging from clucks, squeals and whistles
Belugas can also communicate through facial expressions and physical contact
Belugas use echolocation, where they produce clicking sounds and then receive and interpret the resulting echo, to find their ocean prey, breathing holes under the arctic ice, and to navigate in the deep dark waters The gestation period of the female beluga is 14 to 15 months
Most calves (baby belugas) are born May - July
A female may give birth to a single calf every 2-3 years
Calves are born around 5 feet long and weigh about 175 pounds
The new born swims for its first breath in 10 seconds with the help of his mother
The calf is nursed by its mother for the first year
The strongest bond is between a mothers and her calf. They often form pods separate from the males. General Description General Description The beluga is a small, toothed whale.
It is heavily built and has a small blunt head tiny eyes, and a lot of blubber.
The Russian definition of beluga is "the white one."
The belugas nicknames are white whale, the white porpoise, the sea canary and the squid hound. Body Shape Size
Belugas are slow swimmers (3-9 kph) but can speed up to 22 kph in bursts for about 15 min only
Beluga whales are structured to be highly maneuverable, not high-speed swimmers
They can swim forward and backward
They often swim at depths that barely cover their bodies
Belugas don't dive very deep but can stay submerged for more than 15 minutes

Habitat Beluga whales swim among icebergs in the icy waters of the arctic and subarctic where the temperature may be as low as 0 degrees Celsius
Belugas are found mainly in shallow coastal waters where the water is barely deep enough to cover their bodies
During summers, Belugas can travel up northern rivers into partly salty waters to hunt prey
Some belugas migrate south to warmer waters in large herds when the sea freezes over
Beluga whales seem comfortable in both a cold ocean habitat and a warmer freshwater habitat Population The beluga whale population is estimated to be 60,000 to 80, 000 Swimming and Breathing Life Expectancy The life expectation of the beluga whale is 25-30 years Body Shape The manatee's body is full around the middle and narrows to a paddle-shaped tail. It is streamlined
They have 2 flippers, both with 3-4 nails on the end and no hind limbs, just a flattened tail
Manatees have a boxy nose with short whiskers Female manatees, known as cows, become sexually mature around 3 years of age, while male manatees, known as bulls, mature by about 10 years old
Cows may mate with several bulls Birth and Care of Young The gestation period for a female manatee is 12 months
Breeding takes place all year round
Most calves are born during spring and summer
Manatees give birth to a single calf every 2-5 years
Depending on the breed, manatee calves can be born as little as 80cm or as long as 4 feet
There are folds in the calf's skin that last for several weeks
A newborn calf can swim to the surface on its own for its first breath
A calf is nursed by its mother for up to a year and stays close to its mother for up to 2 years Life Expectancy Manatees live up to 50-60 years old Swimming and Breathing Manatees are agile and move easily under water
They can swim up to 24 kph for short bursts but usually travel about 3-10 kph or even less
They don't dive deeper than 10 feet Manatees breathe air through their nostrils into their lungs
While resting, manatees can stay under water for up to 20 minutes though they usually come up for air every 2-3 minutes
Manatees have flaps to cover their nose during dives
Manatees sleep with their nostrils poking just above the water Size Communication Manatees send sounds like chirps, whistles and squeaks under the water Behavior Manatees are gentle, non-territorial mammals
When they aren't feeding or resting, manatees spend time traveling, investigating objects and socializing with other manatees
Manatees live in small family groups, in small herds of 15-20 individuals or alone
The strongest connection is between a mother and her calf
Manatees are known to play together in activities like bodysurfing and follow-the-leader
Manatees form loose friendships and come and go easily Behavior Beluga whales are very social mammals
The strongest bond is between a mother and her calves
Belugas are found in groups of 2 to 25 whales though the average pod size is 10
Pods will hunt and migrate as a group.
Many pods may join together creating groups of 200 to 10,000 belugas.
Belugas playfully chase and rub against one another
They are curious about humans thx for watching A beluga whale's body is thick and stocky. It has a small blunt head with a beak and a rounded melon.
It has no dorsal fin so swimming under sheets of ice isn't a problem
The flippers are short, rounded and wide
The tail, or fluke, is wide and notched
It has thick folds of blubber along its ventral surface to insulate it and make it more streamline. Habitat Manatees live in warm, 60 degree Celsius, shallow waters along the coast from the Amazon to Florida and all around the world
They can live in fresh, salt or a mix of both waters
The patchy distribution of manatees is due to the search for suitable habitat - one that has plenty of aquatic plants and a freshwater drinking source
Power plant outfalls and warm water springs are important winter destinations for manatees.
Population Scientists believe there may be as many as 3000 manatees in Florida
Other populations are unknown due to poor scientific research Beluga whales breathe through a single blowhole, similar to a nostril
The beluga holds its breath under water, opens its blowhole to exhale just before it reaches the surface and then quickly inhales and closes the muscular flap over the blowhole Birth and Care of Young
Male belugas become sexually mature at 8 or 9 years old, while the females mature between 4 and 7 years old
Breeding occurs March through May
Belugas breed in warm, shallow waters
A single dominant male beluga may mate with several females Manatees are mammals that live in the water.
There are several species of manatees but they are all nicknamed "sea cows" because of their massive bulk.
They are known to be slow moving and graceful swimmers.
Manatees are related to elephants.
Sailors used to believe manatees were mermaids.
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