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8) Korean Communists in China and Manchuria
Jin Darlaeon 28 April 2011
Transcript of 8) Korean Communists in China and Manchuria
the fall of the Japanese
Communist Party China 1920's 1930's joined the CCP in the latter part of the 1920's,
but their participation ended by the early thirties,
when most of leaders were arrested. Nationalists led the revolutionary movement
After releasing communists,
militant communists in China were reactivated. + = Most successful
one MGB MPC the Manchurian General Bureau
of the korean Communist Party the Manchurian Provincial Committee
of the Chinese Communist Party 1. Korean Communists in China (1) Communists and Nationalists in China 옌안 Communist Nationalist Shanghai There were no mass to uphold the leadership ; few ordinary Korean settlers in Shanghai Manchuria
Japan Groupings of leaders of the Korean revolution + Why? So many defeats! But, it's true that many revolutionary activities were launched into Korea from this Shanghai base and also that many programs were devised here. Factionalism in the early 1930's ① ② Cho Pong-am
(조봉암) Hong Nam-pyo(홍남표)
Pak Hon-yong(박헌영) <- handling of the party funds
his alleged submission to the Japanese police M.L. group An Kwang-chon
(안광천) Marx-Lenin Han Wi-kon
(한위곤) leader of th M.L. group in Shanghai no significant developments in Shanghai from the members of the M.L. group liquidationist expelled
joined Nationalist group in Beking An Kwang-chon was regarded among the Communists as a defeatist, but in the Nationalist group he reflected a Communist view of various Nationalist problems
Korean Communist activities in China more or less ceased to exist by early 1933.
Until the beginning of the 1940's, there was not a revival of organized efforts by the Korean Communists in north China Hanguk Tae-Il Chonson Tongil Tongmaeng
[Korean Anti-Japanese Front Unification League] Kim Kyu-sik with 8 organizations ;
the Korean Independence Party,
the Korean Revolutionary Party,
the Korean Volunteer Corps,
the Restoration Comrades Association... soon broke up Choson Minjok
Huongmyong-tang July 5, 1935 * efforts to form a united Nationalist party Choson Minjok
Front Federation] July 1937 a united front organization Fail Hanguk
Tongnip-tang inherited the KPG Cho So-ang
Yi Chong-Chon Two leading parties Choson Minjok Hyongmyong-tang
Revolutionary Party] KNRP Kim Won-bong
Kim Kyu-sik more powerful we will see
those relationship in other pespective Right-wing Nationalists KPG Other Nationalist Communists Nationalists.. KNRP Kim Ku Kim Won-bong Korean political leaders had gathered at Shanghai to create the KPG, but had failed to produce a workable system and thus dispersed.
The remnant of the KPG was meremly a flamework for the satisfaction of the vanity of the former police chief of the KPG. Terrorist
Org + the Korean
Terroirist group Choson Uiyong Dae
[Korean Volunteer Corps] * Military Group Taehan Kwangpok-tan
[Korean Restoration Corps] KNRP (Nationalists group) Kim Won-bong + An Kwang-chon Communist Nationalist Kim and An cooperated to introduce communism
among the members of the Kim's military groups and fellowers Musanja Chonwi-Tongmaeng
[The Proletariat Vanguard League] Fail in the mid of 1930's released
Communist leaders Han Pin
Choe Chang-ik into KNRP so, communists increased ▲
in Nationalists group Nationalists Communists ↔ But, consolidation was difficult So, in 1938, the Communists left the KNRP and
began to move north into Yenan. commanded by Kim Won-bong
fought under the Chinese Nationalist Army KPG : Communists X
KNRP : Communists O the First Congress(1936) KNRP in Nanking the Second Congress(1936) KNRP in Hopei Kim Ku, Cho So-ang, Choe Tong-o left In 1938, the fell of Hankow and Wuchang gave a crushing blow to the KNRP Choe Chang-ik left with many to Yenan Japan forces ▲ so, KNRP(chungking)
KPG - 33rd congress of the KPG - 38th congress of the KPG insisted KNRP + KPG agaist Chinese gendarme Vice-Premier : Kim Kyu-sik
Minister of Defense : Kim Won-bong But, the communists did not join the KPG,
later consolidating their forces in Yenan. (2) Korean Communists in Yenan Why? they are important? * The importance of the Korean Communist movement in Yenan lie in the subsequent development of the Yenan group in North Korea after the liberation of Korea.
* They cooperated with Kim Il-song and shared the power in North Koreea for over a decade after the liberation. Who
they? They revolted against the KNRP and its military group, the Korean Volunteer Corps. Why
Yenan? The true cause of the Communist migration to Yenan is in the disintegration of the KNRP after Wuchang and Hankow fell to the Japanese on October 23, 1938. KNRP + KPG in the active participation of the leaders of the KNRP in the KPG forced many members of the military group to find their way north. Korean Volunteer Corps
Korean Restoration Army
in Chungking in May 1942. That's not because of Chinese Communists' Scheme! That's because...! Yenan
Group Wuhan -> Loyang -> Tungko former members of the original 'Chonnyon Chonwi Tongmaeng'[The Youth Vanguard League] - gathered at a Tungko and organized 'Hwapuk Choson Chongnyon Yonhap-hoe'[The North China Korean Youth Federation] (January 10, 1941) ; Communist organization
- This youth federation revived 'the Korean Volunteer Corps' in north China,
calling the military force under
'the Federation the North China Branch of the Korean Volunteer Corps'
'the Headquarters Company of the 18th Military Group of the Chinese Red Army'
Wuhan -> Kweilin ->
Chungking -> Tungko Choson minjok Haebang Tujaeng Tongmaeng (Kim Hak-mu, Kim In-chol, Yi ik-song and etc) - opposed the merger of the Korean Volunteer Corps with Korean Restoration Corps and the KPG
- defied the KNRP and led some of the military groups under their command to join the Federation in north China.
- In 1941, some of the third company of the Korean Volunteer Corps moved to the north.
- the deputy commander, Pak Hyo-sam, Yang Min-san, Yi Chun-am left Chungking to join the group in the north. => Mu-jong, in preparation for an anticipated mass migration, established the Korean Revolutionary Youth Caddet School in Tungko in August 1941 to accomodate and train these men in Communist discipline. Beginning... Tungko Hwapuk Choson Tongnip Tongmaeng
[North China Korean
(NCKIL) the NCKIL was not centered in Yenan
=> branch in Yenan in July, 1941
=> But, the operations and headquaters were in Tungko - Korean communists were defeated or successful in battles against the Japanese
=> they gradually retreated ultimately to Yenan.
- The military group was reorganized into three companies under the command of Pak Hyo-sam ; unified command
- The total Korean Communist concentration under the NCKIL, did not exceed 300 Koreans. Korean
Nationalist KPG Chinese Nationalists Chinese Communists indifference Although it's apparent that the Koreans fought under the Chinese Communists against the Japanese, there is no indication of any significant Chinese Communist assistance. + Yenan
Group it's unlikely that the main force of the NCKIL, its headquaters and officers, were in Yenan any longer than one or two years, at the most. In February 1944, the Yenan branch of the NCKIL had no more than twenty Koreans and most of the members were women and others unable to fight. the primary importance of Yenan group lies in their later participation in political affairs in North Korea no important relationship between the Korean and Chinese Communists ; The Chinese Communists have been extremely silent about the purge of most of these Yenan Communists at the hands of Kim Il-song. 2. Korean Communist in Manchuria (1) The Chientao May 30 (The Forth) Incident The Korean Communists in Manchuria staged a carefully planned, destructive riot on May 30, 1930, to commemorate their alliance with the CCP Chinese Memorial day Korean
Communists upheaval was to be carried out by Chinese
Communist supply the necessary arms and money Yongjong Toutaokow Tientu
Railroads Plan destroy,,, the Yongjong branch of the Japanese Overseas Ministry and the Electric Light Co.
the homes of wealthy pro-Japanese Koreans the Telephone and Telegraph Co,
pro-Japanese Korean schools 500 people 200 people 200 people 11 P.M. May 30, 1930 Success restored confidence
[the most important accomplishment] But, unfortunate step in the development of the Korean Communist movement Because it became a point of contention among the Koreans, that Koreans could actually accomplish something only under the leadership of others So, many Korean Communists joined the CCP
but under Chinese leadership Korean Communism dwindled (2) The Fifth Incident and After sanctioned by the Li Li-san(이립삼) Program The May 30 was the beginning of a long series of destructive incidents, known collectively as the Fifth Incident, for the relative success of the riot spurred the Korean communists on to more destructive riots. The Korean Communists rioted only on special memoral days from June to November 1930 Tunhua 8-1
(August 1) Attacks! by Chinese + Japanese Polices
mid of November Arrested Casualties ▲ 503/2000
(1/4) Following armed disturbance plan
was disclosed Chinese police participated to Japanese police to restrain Communist activities condemned by
1) Korean Nationalist
- because of ruthless outrages
- because of stooges of the Russian Bolsheviks
2) Christian orgs
- because of ruthless outrages
- because of Communist atheism difficult to revive the efforts of the Korean Communists consolidated the Koreans by help of Russian Communist Party in three major headquaters,,, Hunchun Yenki Wang-
ching Failed 3. Under the Manchurian Provincial Committee * Coalition issue, Korean
Communists preferential treatment of Koreans by Japanese submission to the Chinese
felt discriminated not strong enough
audacious but adamant attitudes Failed (1) Initial Cooperation The Manchurian
of the CCP Korean
+ Chinese Chinese
mov MPC urging Kuomintang and Korean to resist and fight the Japanese BUT, On November 21, 1931,
was raided by the Japanese Army move to Harbin Comintern Liu was sent to Harbin
to inspect the condition of Communist operation made disparaging report on the Communist operation in Manchuria - the MPC should be firm and impose strict discipline on corrupt members as well as on the leaders. After Manchukuo, Korean Communists in the MPC, pointing out the slow progress under Chinese leadership, are said to have proposed that the MPC be detached from the CCP and placed under the direct control of the Comintern But, refused by the Comintern,,, the CCP have carried out a massive purge against those who advocated the detachment policy the purge reduced the influence of the Koreans in the MPC (2) LI YAO-KUEI and The January Directive Comintern February 1932, decided to make a fresh effort towards accentuating popular anti-Japanese sentiment in Manchuria Liu direced the CCP to convey a directive,
"The Condition of Manchuria and the Duties of the Communist Party"
to MPC on January 26, 1933 January Directive elaborated on the duty of the MPC to expand the ranks of the Red partisans and to propagate the united front in order to bring Nationalist forces under Communist guerilla control.
Futher, it stressed establishment of a strong base of Communist organizations to launch mass propaganda activities and rally the laborers and peasants to the anti- Japanese front under a Communist banner. February Directive (1933) (1934) stressing the role of the MPC in building stronger resistance forces under the Communist partisan groups. But, already, on April 7 ,1934, the Japanese police raided the Harbin headquaters and arrested Li revealed much of the party secrets After the February Directive, the Koreans have renewed their efforts to detach the MPC from the CCP, which ended in another purge. There were numerous Korean casualties at this time So, Korean dissatisfaction with the Chinese became apparent and they openly rejected the Chinese leadership Koreans 85% of the membership
Chinese were the majority of their officers T.A. set out to revive Korean Communist activities saparately from the Chinese the Asong Communist Party failed the MPC collapsed by Japanese police (3) HAN SHOU-KUEI and The Koreans Comintern in August 1935,
Han Shou-kei(한수괴) reorganized the MPC, to dissolve the youth group of the MPC, and to form a new people's popular and united front. But, struggle within the MPC Koreans Chinese over Korean advancement to a position of leadership arrest of July 7, 1937 March 15, 1938 the last massive arrest ; the 3-15 Incident Communist Party activities in Manchuria under the MPC experienced setbacks similar to those in Korea. It was difficult to make any progress after the establishment of Manchukuo because of Japanese police The Korean-Chinese Communist coalition was a mistake ; difficulties in the relationship multiplied along with their failures. Many left Manchuria and returned
to the Russian Maritime Province, China, Korea. However,,, There is a significant difference between the Communist movements in Manchuria and Korea,
for in Manchuria, there was a prolongation of guerilla activities that ultimately came under the Communist leadership. Communist advent in Manchuria was not a total failure. successfully harassed the Japanese until the beginning of World War 2. it was in these guerilla forces commanded by the Chinese that Kim Il-song received his training and later advanced to the leadership To sum up,,, Failed Why? 30's under foreign parties There seems to have existed no clear objective - consisted of independent and sporadic activities to alleviate the defeat and frustration of the 1920's
- The Korean Communists' justification of their cooperation with the foreign parties (the principle of "one party, one country") is as ludicrous as it is irrelevant.
- the leaders within Korea failed to control and direct the movements abroad. difficult relationship between Korean Communists and the of other parties
same obstacles confronting within Korean - For the Korean Communists it seemed as though a cordial relationship was possible only when their subordination to the foreign party was total.
- A certain amount of national discrimination was apparent at the initial stage of cooperation ; for the Korean, were assigned to the more dangerous tasks, and it was only after considerable sacrifices that the Koreans advanced to higher posts.
- particularly that of the Chinese in Manchuria Lack of mutual understanding of the fundamental nature and purpose of the cooperation btw KC N Communist leaders of the foreign parties - the purpose of Korean Communist participation in the foreign parties was to advance the cause of communism in Korea ; couldn't be understood
- the leaders of the foreign parties did not fully comprehend the need of the Koreans to join their movement
- little to educate and train Korean Communists for the advancement of Korean communism Japanese Police - the Japanese military expansion during the 1930's, with numerous police forces in Manchuria, Communist under the foreign parties suffered the same fate. then, did they continued to struggle for the cause of Korean communism? the politically subjugated condition of their country most of communists felt a sense of revolutionary mission to liberate Korea from Japanese exploitation the mode of the Koreans' acceptance of communism Although they lacked a proper understanding of the thoretical principles of communism, they accebted communism as a religious credo.
accepted communism with a sense of mission to liberate the oppressed and exploited Korean people