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Classical Music: Fundamentals and History

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Sam Potts Potts

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Transcript of Classical Music: Fundamentals and History

Classical Music
Classical (Period) Music
1750 - 1820
Contemporary
Conclusion
The far-reaching effects of classical music can be felt throughout our society's current music
Music is ever changing
Baroque Music
By: Sam Potts
Classical Music?
Oh Great....

What is classical music
?

Music that is rooted in Western Culture
Countries such as India and China are not included

Classical music
Renaissance
Baroque
Classical
Romantic
Contemporary
1000 - 1600
1600 - 1750
1750 - 1820
1810 - 1920
1900 -
Thomas Tallis
Palestrina
William Byrd
Monteverdi
Pachelbel
Vivaldi


Scarlatti
Handel
BACH
Haydn
MOZART
Beethoven*
Schubert
Mendelssohn
Schumann
Liszt

Brahms
Tchaikovsky
Mahler
Rachmaninoff
Middle Ages and Renaissance
In 313, Constantine the Great issues the Edict of Milan, permitting Christianity in the Roman Empire
On February 27, 380, Christianity was declared as the official religion on the Roman Empire
In the beginning...
Music was vocal and church related
The Church was VERY powerful
A Capella chants are sung in unison (plainchants)
Inflexion of voice when speaking prayers?
Pope Gregory I - Schola Cantorum
Gregorian Chants
Writing Music
Before there was a system of writing music....
But in early 11th century...

Guido Arezzo
- developed a four-lined stave
Polyphony -
two or more simultaneous lines of independent melody, as opposed to music with just one voice (
monophony
) or music with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords (
homophony
).
Sicut Cervus by Palestrina (
Polyphonic
)
Ubi Caritas by Durufle (
Homophonic
)
Giovanni Perluigi de Palestrina (1525 - 1594)
Born in Palestrina, Italy
Choir boy in the basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome
Later became choir master of the Vatican
Pope Julius III died shortly after
Pope Paul IV was then elected
Fired Palestrina for publishing secular music and celibacy
Palestrina continued to compose in Rome, and rose to fame in the 1560's
Took on a fur-trading business in old age
Buried in St. Peter's Basillica
Key Works:
Missa L'homme
Lamentations
Stabat Mater
500 - 1400
1400 - 1600
But first, some (a lot of) basic terminology:
Mass
A piece that sets several selections of the Liturgy of the Word and Liturgy of the Eucharist to music.
Mass has specific sections to it:
Kyrie
Gloria
Credo
Sanctus et Benedictus
Agnus Dei
Kyrie
Kyrie eleison,
Christe eleison,
Kyrie eleison.
Lord, have mercy upon us,
Christ, have mercy upon us,
Lord, have mercy upon us.

Gloria
Gloria in excelsis Deo
et in terra pax hominibus bonae voluntatis.
Laudamus te,
benedicimus te,
adoramus te,
glorificamus te,
[ . . . ]
Glory to God in the highest,
and on earth peace to people of good will.
We praise you,
We bless you,
We adore you,
We glorify you,
[ . . . ]
Pre-Mass
: Vesting prayers in the sacristy Asperges me Vidi aquam in Eastertide

Liturgy of the Word
: Sign of the Cross --> Psalm 43 --> Entrance Antiphon --> Penitential Rite (Confiteor/
Kyrie
) -->
Gloria
--> Dominus vobiscum --> Collect Oremus --> First Reading --> Responsorial Psalm or Gradual --> Epistle --> Alleluia (Gospel verse/sequence) --> Gospel --> Homily -->
Credo
(Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed or Apostles' Creed) --> General Intercessions

Liturgy of the Eucharist
: Offertory (Orate fratres/prayer over the gifts) --> Preface (Sursum corda/
Sanctus
/Hosanna) --> Eucharistic Prayer/Canon of the Mass (oblation/epiclesis/Words of Institution/elevation/anamnesis) --> texts & rubrics --> Roman Canon (History) --> Eucharistic Prayer II --> Eucharistic Prayer IV --> Memorial Acclamation --> Lord's Prayer (embolism/doxology) --> Pax --> Sign of peace -->
Agnus Dei
--> Fraction --> Holy Communion (Communion antiphon) --> Ablutions Postcommunion --> Dismissal (Ite, missa est/Benedicamus Domino) --> Last Gospel

Post-Mass
: Leonine prayers Recessional hymn
Order of Mass
Only text not in Latin
Text is Greek
Celebratory passage praising God and Christ
Agnus Dei
Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere nobis.
Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere nobis.
Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, dona nobis pacem.
Lamb of God, you who take away the sins of the world, have mercy upon us.
Lamb of God, you who take away the sins of the world, have mercy upon us.
Lamb of God, you who take away the sins of the world, grant us peace.
Lamb of God
Requiem
Mass for the dead

Sections:
Introit
Kyrie Eleison
Gradual
Tract
Dies Irae
Offertory
Sanctus
Agnus Dei
Communion
Pie Jesu
Libera Me
In Paridisium
Dies Irae
"Day of Wrath"
Poem describes the day of judgement where the saved are delivered, and the unsaved are cast into eternal flames
19 stanzas
Dies irae! Dies illa
Solvet saeclum in favilla:
Teste David cum Sibylla!
Day of wrath and doom impending,
David’s word with Sibyl’s blending,
Heaven and earth in ashes ending!
Lacrimosa dies illa,
qua resurget ex favilla
Iudicandus homo reus.
Huic ergo parce, Deus:
Ah! that day of tears and mourning!
From the dust of earth returning
Man for judgement must prepare him;
Spare, O God, in mercy spare him!
Lacrimosa
A musical production in which singers and musicians perform a dramatic work with a
libretto
and musical score
Deals more with mythology, love, murder, etc.
Two types of singing:
Recitative
Aria
Opera
Notable operas and composers:
Mozart - classical opera
Le Nozze Di Digaro, Don Giovani, Cosi fan tutte, and Die Zauberflote
Rossini - "The Italian Mozart"
39 Operas
Il barbiere di Siviglia (The Barber of Seville) and Guillaume Tell (William Tell)
Verdi
Rigoletto, La traviata, Nabucco, and Aida
Puccini
La boheme, Tosca, Madam Butterfly
George Gershwin
Porggy and Bess
First American opera
Oratorio
A musical composition for orchestra, choir, and soloists that tells a story in a more "reserved" way than opera
Text is generally religious
Two types of singing:
Recitative
Aria
Notable oratorios:
HANDEL
Wrote 29 oratorios
*The Messiah*
, Israel in Egypt, Saul, Samson, Juddas Maccabaeus
Haydn
Die Schopfung (The Creation)
Mendelssohn
Elija
Bach
Easter Oratorio
Christmas Oratorio
Beethoven
Christ on the Mount of Olives
Symphony
A work generally for orchestra that contains generally 4 movements (classical form)
General form:
Opening Sonata form; generally quick
Slow movement (adagio)
Minuet or scherzo (movement in 3/4 or "playful" piece)
Allegro, rondo, or sonata (fast or in sonata form)
Sonata form
Exposition:
Introduces theme in tonic key
Second theme is generally in dominant (if tonic is minor, 2nd theme is generally in relative major)
Exposition generally repeats
Development:
Various keys are then gone through
Recapitulation:
exposition is revisited, but slightly different
Other types of symphonies:
Choral symphony - symphony format with a choir added. (AKA Beethoven's Symphony No. 9)
Organ symphony - SOLO organ that imitates orchestral tone, texture, and symphonic process
Piano symphony -same as organ, but for piano
Notable symphonies:
Mozart:
Wrote about 50 symphonies (up to debate)
Symphony No. 40 "Great g minor Symphony"
Symphony No. 41 "Jupiter Symphony"
Beethoven:
Symphony No. 5
Symphony No. 9 "Choral Symphony"
Symphony No. 3 "Eroica"
Schubert Mass in G
Gloria from Schubert Mass in G
Agnus Dei by Samuel barber
(based on Adagio for Strings)
Dies Irae from Verdi's Requiem
Dies Irae by Mozart
Lacrimosa from Mozart's Requiem
Lacrimosa from Britten's War Requiem
Aria: Der Holle Rache from The Magic Flute by Mozart
Aria: Signore Ascolta! from Turadot by Puccini
Recitative: There were Shepards Abiding in the Field from The Messiah by Handel
Aria: Rejoice Greatly, O Doaughters, of Zion from The Messiah by Handel
Halleluiah Chorus from The Messiah by Handel
Symphony for Solo Piano; Mov. 4 by Alkan
Symhphony No. 9; Mov. 4 by Beethoven
Other Small Things
Sonata
A piece played, opposed to being sung
General Movements:
Allegro
Slower movement
Closing movement that is fast; often rondo or minuet
Moonlight Sonata Mov. 1 by Beethoven
Moonlight Sonata Mov. 3 by Beethoven
Piano Concerto
A work where a piano is accompanied by an orchestra
Consists of generally 3 movements:
Fast
Slow
Fast
Piano Concerto No. 2 by Rachmaninoff
Rhapsody
One movement
Different from a concerto or symphony
Large "range" in the one movement
Think of Bohemian Rhapsody by Queen
Most popular:
Rhapsody in Blue
Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini
Rhapsody in Blue by Gershwin
How music is organized:
Works without an Opus:
Handel
Categorized by HWV (Handel-Werke-Verzeichnis)
Ex: HWV 1 - 42 are Handel's operas
Bach
Categorized by BWV (Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis)
Mozart
Catagorized by K ( Kochel)
Opus:

Opus (Op.) = "work" as a noun in Latin
Ex: Op. 10 No. 1
Chopin
Opus 10 is a set of twelve etudes
No. 1 is the first etude in the set
Equivalent is JK Rowling's Harry Potter series is her Opus 1. So Book 4: Goblet of Fire is would be cataloged as Op. 1 No. 4
Etudes
A work for a single instrument that concentrates on a specific skill
Op. 10 No. 2 "Chromatique" by Chopin
Etude Op. 25 No. 6 "Double Thirds" by Chopin
Everything from Scott Joplin to Penderecki
History of Mass
Mass began as a Gregorian Chant
Began to be polyphonic in the 14th century
First mass
Messe de Nostre Dame
by Guilaume de Machaut
Composed about 1365
All masses from 1400 - 1600 were polyphonic, and only used male voices
Most popular masses (ex. Schubert's) were used as concert pieces (not meant for religious services)
Messe de Nostre Dame by Machaut
Video that explains sonata form
(About 1/3 of the way through)
Thomas Tallis (1505 - 1585)
Tallis composed in several cathedrals around southern England
Composed traditionally with traditional Catholic texts until...
King Henry VIII split from the Catholic Church in 1534 with the Act of Supremacy
Had to compose in English AND without a tighter restriction on polyphony
Composer of Canterbury Cathedral in 1543
Had to switch back to Catholicism with Mary I's religious policy
Had to switch back to Protestantism with Elizabeth I's religious policies
Catholic --> Protestant --> Catholic --> Protestant
If Ye Love Me by Tallis
Spem in Allium by Tallis
1600 - 1750
Baroque - dramatic style of art and music that was common in the 17th and early 18th centuries and that featured many decorative parts and details
What separates the Renaissance from the Baroque period?
Shift from contrapuntal polyphony (all voices equal), to monody (bass and treble being the two most important)
Bass and Soprano two most important parts; others are harmony
Instrumentation:
Change from a focus on vocal music to instruments
More instruments added to the forming orchestra (violin)
The Four Seasons by Vivaldi
(First is Spring)
Ecclesiastical Latin
AE = Aestate
G = Gentes v.s. Gloria
C = Excelsis
The Latin pronunciation and usage by the Catholic Church
Latin written by ancient authors, such as Cicero and Caesar, was much more complicated in syntax
More on Church Latin:
https://www.ewtn.com/expert/answers/ecclesiastical_latin.htm
Historical reasoning for shift:
Protestant Reformation began in 1517 (Ninety-Five Theses)
Counter Reformation begins shortly after
Catholic Jesuits quickly adopted Baroque music and art to appeal to people
St. Peter's Basilica (1626)
Opera in the Baroque Period
Orchestras become bigger with additions of instruments (violin, harpsichords, organs, etc.)
Dafne
by Jacopo Corsi
Earliest known work considered opera; written in about 1597
Only two acts remain
Monteverdi (1567 - 1643)
Wrote 18 operas
L'Orfeo, Il ritorno d'Ulisse in patria, L'incoronazione di Poppea
Dido's Lament "Thy Hand, Belinda!" from Dido and Aeneas by Henry Purcell
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685 - 1750)
Born in Eisenach, Saxe-Eisenach (93 miles from Frankfurt, Germany)
Born into a very musical family (also produced a very musical family)
Wrote nothing for piano
Harpsichord, organ, and clavichord
Was Lutheran; not Catholic
Wrote cantatas instead of masses and requiems
Did write a Mass in b minor, though
Quickly built his reputation as a keyboardist
Was organist and music director for several churches
Bach has two wives with whom he fathered 10 children
Almost all became composers/musicians
CPE Bach is most well known
Origins of the Piano
Music written pre-Classical period was mostly written for harpsichord
Harpsichord - a keyboard instrument where the strings are plucked
This offers
NO contrast
in loud and soft as it is being played.
In 1700, Bartolomeo Cristofori invented the first piano
Used hammers to hit the strings
Originally known as the pianoforte
piano = soft
forte = loud
Sonata in D minor by Domenico Scarlatti
Miserere Mei, Deus
Composed by
Gregorio Allegri
in the 1630's
Written for Pope Urban VIII
Intended to be sung only on the Holy Thursday and Good Friday of the Holy Week in the Sistine Chapel
Could not be performed outside of the Sistine Chapel (punishment was excommunication)
Mozart
In 1770, at the age of 14, Mozart and his family are in the midst of their tour of Italy
Mozart went to the Wednesday performance of the piece, and then proceeded to write it out from memory
He returned to the Vatican that Friday to make minor corrections
Mozart gave the piece to
Dr. Charles Burney
, a British historian, and thus, the work was released
Instead of being excommunicated, Pope Clement XIV praised him and his abilities
Miserere Mei, Deus by Allegri (sung by the King's College Choir of Cambridge)
English translation with Roy Goodman singing soprano solo (King's College Choir)
Reasonings for shift to Classical Periods
Date of 1750 is given is because Bach's death in 1750 and Mozart's birth in 1756
Simplification of music
Still "mechanical", but not nearly as much
Not as much polyphony
The Enlightenment
Revolutions
Philosophy
Focus of music moved from Italy and lower Germany, northward into upper Germany and other countries.
Musical Changes in the Classical Period
The symphony developed in the Classical period
An established difference between violin, viola, cello, and double bass
Other instruments were vastly improved on
A greater division between vocal music and instrumental ensemble music
Piano is being used for the first time
Very appealing, due to the fact of the range of volumes
Allows for more emotional performances
Listen to the difference between the Bach and Mozart
Brandenburg Concerto No. 3 by Bach
Symphony No. 25 Mov. 1 by Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756 - 1791)
Born in Salzburg, now in Austria
Mozart's older sister, whom he called Nanerl, "taught" him how to play piano

His father Leopold Mozart gave up composing when it became obvious that his son's talents were exceptionally rare
Mozart and his sister traveled around Europe with his father, performing as prodigies.
This time included the infamous trip to Rome in 1770
In 1772, Mozart was appointed court musician in Salzburg
Unsatisfied, Mozart left to Vienna in 1782 to become the first freelance composer with notable success
Composed over 200 pieces of music in the next ten years
Died and was buried in a mass grave in 1791
"He often spent much time at the clavier, picking out thirds, which he was ever striking, and his pleasure showed that it sounded good.... In the fourth year of his age his father, for a game as it were, began to teach him a few minuets and pieces at the clavier.... He could play it faultlessly and with the greatest delicacy, and keeping exactly in time.... At the age of five, he was already composing little pieces, which he played to his father who wrote them down."
Notable Pieces:
Requiem in d minor
Ein kline Nacht Music
Piano Concerto No. 21
Piano Sonata No. 16 K. 545
Ludwig van Beethoven (1770 - 1827)
Often placed in both the Romantic and Classical Periods of music (Mostly, you will see him as Romantic)
Beethoven was born in Bonn, Germany
Beethoven's father noted the success Leopold Mozart had with W.A. Mozart only 20 years before, and attempted to exploit him
Gave first public concerts at the age of 7
In 1790, Haydn invited Beethoven to come study in Vienna
Focused on performance of music, and very well-funded
Began to lose hearing at age of 26 (1796)
By 1802, he it was getting worse, and he became bitter
He compromised this period by writing some of his most well-known works
By 1814, he was almost complete deaf
But he still continued to compose great works
Symphony No. 9
"Keep your eye on him; one day he will make the world talk of him" - Mozart on hearing 17-year-old Beethoven
Notable Works
Piano Sonata No. 14 "Moonlight"
Piano Sonata No. 8 "Pathetique"
Symphony No. 5
Symphony No. 9 "Choral Symphony"
Bagatelle No. 25 "Fur Elise"
Romantic Music
Romanticism - style of art, literature, etc., during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that emphasized the imagination and emotions
1810 - 1920
Dies Irae (Gregorian Chant)
Mozart v.s. Rachmaninoff
Piano Concerto No. 9 Mov. 1 by Mozart
18th Variation from a Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini by Rachmaninoff
Traits of Romantic Music:
Focus on the nocturnal, the ghostly, terrifying thoughts
National identity
Music that tells a story
Song-like melodies
And of course.... a great deal of emotion
A Night on Bald Mountain by Mussorgsky
Pictures at an Exhibition: Baba Yaga and The Great Gate of Kiev by Mussorsky

The Great Gate of Kiev especially shows nationalism
Terror
Nationalism
Story
In the Hall of the Mountain King by Grieg
The Virtuoso Soloists...
Franz Liszt
Known for playing and composing insanely difficult piano music
Often regarded as one of the best pianists in musical history
Was regarded as the best pianist of his time (he won a contest saying so)
Niccolo Paganini
Brought the violin to a whole new level of required skill
Compositions so difficult that very few of his pieces were ever played
Opera
Italian opera became extremely popular
Completely full of passion and emotion
Rossini - "The Italian Mozart"
39 Operas
Il barbiere di Siviglia (The Barber of Seville) and Guillaume Tell (William Tell)
Verdi
Rigoletto, La traviata, Nabucco, and Aida
Puccini
La boheme, Tosca, Madam Butterfly
Nessun Dorma from Turandot by Puccini
Major Composers:
Franz Schubert
Frederic Chopin
Robert Schumann
Richard Wagner
Giuseppe Verdi
Johannes Brahms
Pyotr Tchaikovsky
Edvard Grieg
Gustav Mahler
Richard Strauss
Sergei Rachmaninoff
Cammille Saint-Seans
The Russians
The Mighty Five (1856 - 1870)
Mily Balakriev
Islamey - insanely difficult piano piece
Cesar Cui
Modest Mussorgsky
Pictures at an Exhibition
Alexander Borodin
Nicolai Rimsky-Korsakov
The Flight of the Bumblebee
Tchaikovsky
(1840 - 1893)
Made and international impression of Russian music
Trained is Western style
Not part of the Five due to different style of composition
Swan Lake, The Nutcracker Suite, Piano Concerto No. 1 in Bb minor
Rachmaninoff (1873 - 1943)
Last great Romantic?
Greatest Pianist?
Works:
Vespers
Preludes
Piano Concerto (Nos. 2, 3)
Islamey (one of the hardest piano pieces ever composed) by Balakriev
Piano Concerto No. 3 by Rachmaninoff
1900 - present
Impressionism
Could be classified as Romantic
1890 - 1920
Composers attempted to impersonate nature through music
Two main composers:
Debussy and Ravel
*Claude Debussy (1862 - 1918)*
French composer
Disliked the term Impressionism
Trained in the standard Western musical style
Took a great risk with his Prelude of the Afternoon of the Faun
Woman with a Parasol, facing left by Monet
View At Rouelles, Le Havre by Monet
Maurice Ravel (1875 - 1937)
French composer
Good friends with Debussy
Bolero and transcribed pieces for orchestra
Composed Gaspard de la nuit: Scarbo
Considered the hardest piano piece ever composed (debatable, of course)
Ondine by Ravel
Scarbo by Ravel
Clair de Lune by Debussy
Ragtime
Possibly considered Romantic
1895 - 1918
Extremely popular because its new syncopated rhythms
Began as African American dance music
Scott Joplin (1867 - 1917)
"King of Ragtime"
American pianist and composer
Born into a poor, bust musical family of laborers
Wrote 44 Rags
Maple Leaf
The Entertainer
Maple Leaf Rag by Scott Joplin
Weird and Cool music in the 20th Century
Threnody to the Victims of Hiroshima
Composed by Krzysztof Penderecki in 1960
Originally called 8'37"
Moved by the first performance, Penderecki decided to dedicate it to the victims of Hiroshima
VERY unorthodoxed
Unique musical annotation
Threnody to the Victims of Hiroshima by Penderecki
The Unanswered Question
Composed by Charles Ives
Premiered in 1946
Ives became a church organist at the age of 14, and was a devout Christian
Suffered many hardships in life and worked for an insurance company
So what is the question?
The Perennial Question of Existence
The Unanswered Question by Charles Ives
The War Requiem
Composed by Benjamin Britten in 1961
Britten was a strong pacifist, and despised the amount of war in the world
Wrote his War Requiem using the traditional Latin texts, and WWI poet Wilfred Owens (Dulce et Decorum Est)
Soprano soloist and choir sings the traditional Latin for Requiem.
Bass and Tenor soloists sing poems
Dies Irae strongly depicts war
Benjamin Britten's War Requiem
Classical Music today!
Choral
Former ATL Symphony Orchestra director Robert Shaw "re-energized" choral music
Composers such as Eric Whitacre, Ola Gjeilo, Paul Mealor, etc. dominate popular classical music
Strong focus on dissonance
Piano
Composers such as Marc-Andre Hamelin continue to compose weird, but awesome music!
Ubi Caritas by Paul Mealor
Variations on a Theme by Paganini by Hamelin
Chanson and Madrigal V.S.Motet
Chanson
French for "song"
Generally polyphonic and secular
Generally in the late Middle Ages and Renaissance
Madrigal
A secular choral piece in the Renaissance and Baroque periods
Polyphonic
Motet
A polyphonic choral piece that is generally religious
Generally in Latin
Voice Parts
Female
Soprano
Mezzo-soprano
Alto
Contralto
Male
Countertenor
Tenor
Baritone
Bass
Castrato
In opera, women WERE allowed to perform, but sometimes...
Castrato - males that have been castrated pre-puberty to prevent the voice from changing
Were preferred in seeing how men have more "powerful" voices than females
Last castrato:
Alessandro Moreschi (1858 - 1922)
Only castrato to make recordings

Alessandro Moreschi singing Ave Maria
Messe de Nostre Dame by Machaut
Kyrie from Mass in G by Schubert
Gloria from Mass in G by Schubert
Credo from Mass in G by Schubert
Benedictus from Coronation Mass by Mozart
Agnus Dei by Barber
Dies Irae from Verdi's Requiem
Dies Irae by Jenkins
Lacrimosa from Mozart's Requiem
Lacrimosa from the War Requiem by Britten
Der Holle Rache from the Magic Flute by Mozart
O Mio Babinno Caro from Gianni Schicchi by Puccini
There Were Shepards from The Messiah by Handel
Every Valley from The Messiah by Handel
For Unto us a Child is Born from The Messiah by Handel
Symphony for Solo Piano Mov. 4 by Alkan
Symphony No. 9 by Beethoven
Piano Sonata No. 14 by Beethoven
Piano Concerto No. 2 by Rachmaninoff
Rhapsody in Blue by Gershwin
Transcendental etude No. 4 "Mazzepa" by Liszt
Op. 25 No. 6 "Double Thirds" by Chopin
Sonata in d minor by Scarlatti
Ave Maria by Bach/Gounod
Dies Irae (Plainchant)
Sleep by Eric Whitacre


Sicut Cervus by Palestrina
If ye love me by Tallis
Spem in Allium by Tallis
Somebody to Love by Queen
The Four Seasons: Spring by Vivaldi
Meserere Mei, Deus by Allegeri
Brandenburg Concerto No. 3 by Bach
Symphony No. 25 Mov. 1 by Mozart
Piano Concerto No. 9 by Mozart
Rhapsody on a theme by Paganini Variation 18 by Rachmaninoff
A Night on Bald Mountain by Mussorgsky
Piano Concerto no. 2 by Rachmaninoff
In the Hall of the Mountain King by Grieg
Totentanz by Liszt
Caprice No. 24 by Paganini
Nessun Dorma from Turandot by Puccini
Piano Concerto No. 3 by Rachmaninoff
Clair de Lune by Debussy
Ondine by Ravel
Scarbo by Ravel
The Maple Leaf Rag by Joplin
Threnody to the Victims of Hiroshima by Penderecki
The Unanswered Question by Charles Ives
Ubi Caritas by Paul Mealir
Variations on a Theme by Paganini by Hamelin
Diana Damrau (Soprano) sings Quando piu irato freme by Saleiri
Basso profondo in Chesnokov Op. 40 No. 5
Ut
queant laxis,
Re
sonare fibris,
Mi
ra gestorum,
Fa
muli tuorum,
So
lve polluti,
La
bii reatum, Sancte Joannes!
Developed early solfege
Arabesque No. 1 by Debussy
(
Not a Baroque piece!!!
)
Toccata and Fugue in d minor by Bach
Misere Mei, Deus by Allegri
(I don't like this recording, but it has the sheet music)
Arnold Schoenberg (1874 - 1951)
Wrote terrible music (my personal opinion)
Developed the concept of atonality
A TON of dissonance
Though he developed a new system of music, he considered himself part of the traditional German tradition in music
Three Piano Pieces No. 1 by Schoenberg
Other Notable Composers
Bela Bartok (1881 - 1945)
Igor Stravinsky (1882 - 1971)
The Firebird and The Rite of Spring
Charles Ives (1874 - 1954)
Aaron Copland (1900 - 1990)
was American
Samuel Barber (1910 - 1981)
Adagio for Strings
John Cage (1912 - 1992)
4'33"
Leonard Berstein
Involved with musical theatre
Dmitri Shostakovich (1906 - 1975)
Benjamin Britten (1913 - 1976)
Krzyzstof Penderecki (1933 - )
Gyorgy Ligeti (1923 - )
John Tavener (1944 - 2013)
The Rite of Spring by Stravinsky
Adagio for Strings by Barber
Untrenja: Part 2 "The Ressurection of Christ" by Penderecki
Lux Aeterna by Ligeti
Song for Athene by Tavener
Der Mondflek by Schoenberg
O Magnum Mysterium by Gjeilo
When David Heard by Whitacre
Transcendental Etude No. 5 "Feux Follets" by Liszt
The Alto Line carries the melody until the Soprano picks it up midway and is accompanied by the other voice parts throughout
All voice parts are equal; one voice part does not carry melody the entire time
*I consider this song one of the top 10 greatest achievements in musical history*
Pieces that Represent the Pinnacle of Human Achievement*
*This is my opinion, and these are listed in no discernible order
1. Miserere Mei, Deus by Allegri
2. The Messiah by G.F. Handel
Hallelujah Chorus
3. Adagio for Strings by Barber
From The Planets
5. Mozart's Requiem in d Minor
6. Dido's Lament
From "Dido and Aeneas"
7. Rachmaninoff's 2nd Piano Concerto
4. Jupiter: Bringer of Jollity by Holst
8. When David Heard by Whitacre
*This is my favourite choral piece*
Best part from here to ending
Totentanz by Liszt (exerpt)
9. Partia No. 2: Chaconne by Bach
10. Tchaikovsky Piano Concerto No. 1
Text is taken from the 18th and 19th stanzas of the Dies Irae text.
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