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Indian Wars & Conquering the West

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Juanita Ochoa

on 4 February 2018

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Transcript of Indian Wars & Conquering the West

Indian Wars & Conquering the West
The Homestead Act
Historical Actors & the Railroad
Chinese Immigration & Exclusion
Cattle Drives & The Chisholm Trail
Black Cowboys
Homesteading & Farming
Indian Boarding Schools
Wounded Knee Massacre
Sioux Ghost Dance
This act embodied the Jeffersonian Ideal of agrarianism.
The Act applied to men, unmarried women, immigrants & African Americans.
Each applicant was eligible for 160 acres of public domain land.
Applicants had to be over 21 years of age.
Homesteaders had to live on the land five years.
Homesteaders had to cultivate the land and improve it with structures.
Once a house or barn was built they could receive full title for just $10.
The Act benefited white farmers more than blacks or Mexicans because of the cost of resources necessary to homestead.
The Pacific Railway Act of 1862
The Big Four (Central Pacific)
Leland Stanford
Mark Hopkins
C.P. Huntington
Charles Crocker
James Strobridge
Grenville Dodge
Irish Laborers built the Union Pacific
Chinese Laborers built the Central Pacific
Promontory Point, Utah
May 10, 1869
Indians and the Transcontinental Railroad
Signed by President Lincoln in 1862.
The Act provided for the construction of the Transcontinental Railroad by Union Pacific and Central Pacific.
They were loaned $16,000 per mile of level track and $48,000 per mile of mountain track.
For every mile of track laid they received 6,400 acres of federal land.
No money would be received until the first 40 miles of track were laid.
Jack Casement
Homesteading was extremely hard.
Many homesteaders were forced off their homesteads.
Most homes were made of sod because wood was scarce on the plains.
Families had to provide all labor for success.
Many Homesteaders were immigrants.
Immigrants formed ethnic enclaves.
Chinese were drawn to California with the Gold Rush in 1849.
By 1870 63,000 had come to America.
Most Chinese were men who settled in California.
They intended to earn wages and send it home to their families.
Chinese became the target for discriminatory racial policy.
Queue and sidewalk ordinances
The Chinese Exclusion Act Passed in 1882:
Suspended Chinese immigration for ten years.
Only Chinese Businessmen and merchants were exempt.
Population declined substantially,
The act was renewed in 1892.
This conflict was fueled by labor competition.
The Union Pacific hired Chinese in Rock Springs, Colorado.
Sept 2, 1885, White laborers responded with violence
Homes were burned down
28 Chinese were killed.
Rock Springs Massacre
The Johnson County War
The cattle boom started in southern Texas.
Cattle driving connected to the slaughter house industry
Black cowboys were often given the toughest jobs.
25% of cowboys were black.
Riders like William “Bill” Pickett, Nat Love and Bass Reeves were among the most famous.
Railroads undermined the independence of Native Americans
Native Americans claims to land had to be eliminated to allow for westward expansion and the railroad.
This led to Indian conflicts and the reservation system.
The Battle of Little Big Horn, AKA: The Battle of the Greasy Grass, or Custer's Last Stand, June 25th -26th, 1876
As a means of control and forced assimilation Indian children were taken from their homes and forced to attend boarding schools.
Major defeat was suffered by the U.S. 7th Cavarly.
5 of out 12 companies were killed, including Custer
Occurred in Eastern Montana
Inspired by visions of Paiute Holy Man Wovoka.
The belief in a coming of a new millennium or Golden Age.
Performing the dance allowed them to call upon the spirit of their ancestors.
They'd usher in the coming of the Messiah and the elimination of whites.
Their buffalo herds would return
This dance caused great fear in the heart of whites.
Custer interrupted a multi-tribal gathering.
As the ghost dance spread and dancing went on for days. U.S. authorities became nervous and telegraphed for help.
Custer's old 7th regiment responded.
December 29, 1890
250 Indians Died
This event symbolized the death of 19th century Plains Indian culture.
"Manifest Destiny" is a term first proposed by American Newspaper editor John L. O'Sullivan who was writing about the proposed annexation of Texas in 1845.
Manifest Destiny became the God given mission to expand the boundaries of freedom.
Westward expansion had been in full force two years prior to him coining this term.
It justified the belief that anything, or anyone, in the way should be removed.
In some ways it was an early expression of Anglo-Saxon Supremacy.
It also held seeds of idealism.
Lured by the hope of a new beginning many African Americans migrated west.
In 1889, 20,000 traveled to Kansas.
The Town of Nicodemus Kansas was founded by them.
Exodusters
Buffalo soldiers spent most of their time protecting white settlers from Native Americans.
Between battles they fought outlaws of the West.
They also served as some of the first park rangers.
Las Gorras Blancas
February 1889- Summer 1891
Founded in 1889 by brothers Juan Jose, Pablo, and Nicanor Herrera
Their concerns were land and labor rights.
They became politically active.
They clashed with commercial ranchers. land speculators, and the Railroad in the Southest.
They cut hundreds of miles of fences that enclosed thousands of acres of what commercial ranchers and land speculators considered among the best ranching lands in the territory.
The fence-cutting campaign comprised nearly eighty separate attacks.
The midnight raids targeted newly arrived merchants, ranchers, and the timber and tie operators who fueled local railroad expansion.
The targets were among the wealthiest and most politically powerful figures in New Mexico.
Railroad Expansion
The Pacific Railway Act.
Westward Settlement
Manifest Destiny
The Homestead Act
The Loss of Buffalo
Indian wars, Massacres, & broken treaties.
The Dawes Act
Who the law didn't protect is as important as who it did.
Protecting property rights was unenforced as it applied to Native Americans.
The Demise of Native American Rights & Sovereignty
The Treaties of Fort Laramie & Red Cloud's War
Miners were drawn by the Gold Frenzy in Montana.
This trail went straight through Arapaho and Lakota hunting grounds.
This land had already been ceded to the Indians by the 1851 Treaty of Fort Laramie.
The Bozeman trail violated that treaty causing Red Cloud's War and the Great Sioux War.
The Fetterman Massacre occurred in December 1866. (Battle of the Hundred Slain)
Captain W.J. Fetterman was attacked by warriors led by Red Cloud and Crazy Horse.
All 80 men died.
The treaty making process began in 1866 but didn't end until the 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie.
The Sand Creek Massacre &
Congressional Investigations
In 1858 gold was discovered in Pike's Peak, CO.
The U.S. called Cheyenne & Arapaho for council.
They persuaded indians to give up claims to the land in exchange for land along Sand Creek.
In September 1864, Colorado Governor Evans warned Indians.
He then initiated a 100 day militia.
He authorized militia to kill all "hostile" indians.
November 29, 1864, U.S. Army cavalry soldiers slaughtered approximately 150 Cheyenne and Arapaho Native Americans, most of them women and children.
Congressional investigation labeled the act a massacre forcing Governor Evans to resign.
Congressman Henry Dawes wrote the act.
President Grover Cleveland signed the Dawes Act into law in February 1887.
The law introduced private land ownership to American Indians.
Indians were allotted 160 acres per male head of household.
It slashed millions of acres from the existing land base.
90 million acres of Treaty land was lost.
It was a "Taking" without just compensation.
It broke up tribes as communal units.
Threatened tribal sovereignty.
Poverty drove many Indians to sell lands to speculators, leaving them homeless.
The Dawes Severalty Act : AKA, The Dawes Act
or The General Allotment Act, Enacted February 8, 1887
After the Civil War settlers resumed their journeys westward. Many discovered that the best land was on reservations.
The policy was reversed in 1934.
By that time the damage was done.
Land not allotted to an individual was returned
to the government to sell to white homesteaders.
Where Buffalo No Longer Roam
Joseph Glidden’s invention of barbed wire in 1873 made him rich, changing the face of the American West forever.
Fencing in the Commons
Billy The kid was born William Henry McCarty. He was one of the iconic figures of the west and known for robbing banks as well as other establishments with money
Butch Cassidy was a famous bank robber of the late 1800s. His first offense was near the end of the 1880s and was followed by a string of more serious bank robberies.
The Dalton Gang was a gang of brothers that started out as lawmen in the American West in the late 1800s that turned to become outlaws after have a few payments missed for work they had done
Jesse James was a confederate soldier that was under Bloody Bill Anderson’s leadership for some time. After the war he and his brother paid their way by robbing banks, stagecoaches or trains.
Buffalo Soldiers
Dakota War of 1862
Minnesota Dakota Sioux Indians attacked white settlers who settled on Indian land.
Nearly 1,000 white settlers were captured
400 were killed,
It took an armed militia to regained control.
400 Sioux were captured by U.S. troops.
303 were sentenced to death.
President Lincoln released all but 38.
They were found guilty and hanged in the largest mass execution in the country’s history.
The rest of the tribe was banished.
Manifest Destiny
The Union Pacific
The U.S. Army was organized by Territory in the West.
They escorted wagon trains, protected settlers & Railroad Construction & fought indians.
Battle raged over twenty-five years.
They fought over varied terrain including plains, mountains & deserts.
Battle was characterized by guerrilla warfare;
Skirmishes
Pursuits
Massacres
Raids
Expeditions
Campaigns varied in size & intensity.
The prewar army was a frontier army.
Postwar its strength declined.
From 57,000 in 1867
To 26,000 in 1876.
Effective strength was never reached.
They suffered high rates of sickness and desertion
The United States Army
General George Custer
Commanding General of the U.S. Army
William Tecumseh Sherman
Acting General
Phillip Sheridan
In the mid 19th century there were an estimated 30-60 million buffalo on the Great Plains.
By the end of the 19th century only 300 were left in the wild.
This was a surprise attack that took place November 27, 1868.
General George Armstrong Custer and the 7th calvary attacked a band of Cheyenne living in Western Oklahoma.
Many of this band were survivors of the Sand Creek Massacre.
More than 140 Indians were killed.
53 Indians were taken captive.
The village was destroyed.
More than 800 horses or mules were slaughtered.
It was the first major American victory over the Southern Plains Indians.
The Battle of the Washita River (The Washita Massacre)
Cheyenne captives following the attack on Washita by Custer’s forces.
Chief Joseph
Leader - Wallowa band of Nez Perce.
Ancestral lands - Wallowa Valley of northeastern Oregon
Chief Sitting Bull
Leader - Teton Sioux
Sacred Lands - The Black Hills, South Dakota
Geronimo
Leader & Medicine Man - The Bedonkohe band of the Chiricahua Apache.
Chief Red Cloud
Leader - Oglala, Lakota
Ancestral Lands - The Powder River Country Northern Wyoming & Montana
Crazy Horse, Warrior Oglala Lakota Sioux
Black Hills South Dakota
The Crazy Horse Memorial is a mountain monument under construction on privately held land in the Black Hills, in Custer County, SD.
It will depict the Oglala Lakota warrior, Crazy Horse, riding a horse and pointing into the distance.
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