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Logical Fallacies

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by

Brenda Measom

on 22 October 2015

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Transcript of Logical Fallacies

Ad Populum
An attempt to trigger emotions with either positive ideas (such as patriotism, religion, democracy) or negative ideas (war, terrorists, death) without actually talking about the issue.
Circular Argument
Simply Restates the argument rather than proving it with evidence.
Straw Man
Oversimplifies or misrepresents the argument so that it's easier to attack.
Bandwagon
Using peer pressure by assuming that if a lot of people think something, it must be true.
Half Truth
Deliberately leaving out information in order to falsify the larger picture.
Non Sequitir
Giving evidence or reasoning that is unrelated to the argument at hand.
Logical Fallacies
Examples
Our school newspaper is the best in the district because it is better than any of the other schools' newspapers.
We should have stricter gun control laws because the current law is too relaxed.
You should play fewer video games because playing too much isn't good.
Examples
The healthcare reform just boils down to giving money to people who don't want to work for themselves.
When the governor said that he wouldn't increase taxes in order to protect the economy, what he really meant was he doesn't want to upset rich people.
My teacher said that he is always available after school, but when I go in to get help he's never there.
Examples
You didn't tell us that the assignment was due today, so you should extend the due date (the date was written on the board).
President Bush shouldn't be trusted because he started the war in Iraq (leaving out that the Senate voted on and supported the decision as well).
Doctor Walker endorses the use of oxicoton for migraine headaches (He is a doctor in literature, not medicine).
Examples:
If you love your country and believe in freedom, buy a Dodge truck.
Protect your children from terrorists by increasing your health care coverage today at Allstate.
Defend the founding fathers' vision for America by not supporting gun control laws
Examples
90% of Americans say that they prefer i-phones over androids, so it must be the better brand.
You should let us out to lunch early--all of my other teachers do!
If you don't wear the jersey to school tomorrow, you will be the only player on the football team that doesn't dress up.
Examples
You think that your basketball team is better than ours, but did you know that our coach has a black belt in karate?
European chocolate is better than any other kind because most Europeans speak more than one language.
You shouldn't vote for Stacy as student body president because the prices for food in the vending machine keeps going up.
Rhetoric
Ethos--Appeal to source's credibility

Pathos--Appeal to audience's emotions

Logos--Use of logic or reason to persuade by using facts, statistics, and evidence
Regardless of what type of persuasion you use, make sure your argument is sound and valid!!
Logical Fallacies
Logical Fallacy: A problem or error in the logic or your argument.
Why should you look for logical fallacies?
Fallacies usually show a problem with the evidence used, or the connection between the evidence and the conclusion.
Watch this clip from
Monty Python and the Holy Grail
in which Sir Bedevere explains how a woman is a witch through faulty logic.
Characteristics of a Valid Argument
The argument is supported with evidence. How do you know your opinion is true?
The evidence is based on facts, not opinion.
The argument and evidence fairly represents all of the information available.
Full transcript