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Transcript of Australian History
"We know we cannot live in the past but the past lives in us. "
BY CHARLES PERKINS
Friday, June 6, 2014
Vol XCIII, No. 311
Myall Creek Massacre
In 1824 we are introduced to an Indigenous tribe who live in Australia. There is a young girl Alinta who is fifteen. They are a happy and loving family who hunts together and helps each other. One day when the children were playing down at the beach they saw a ‘ghost’ which was really a young man (head of fire). They ran back screaming that they have just seen a ghost! The men when and had a look around when they found a second man (man of sea). They brought them back to their camp where they tried to question them but neither of them could understand what the other was saying. The women offered them water and food and the men were very appreciative. The two men were welcomed into the tribe.
One day when Alinta was down by the water the man of sea saw her and sexually assaulted her. The tribe are very strong about their rules and obeying them. Man of sea was speared by Alinta’s promised husband for disobeying them. Hair of fire was very scared but the Indigenous people trusted him and allowed him to say as he had proved his loyalty. However he couldn’t return home as he was a convict who had run away. Two years had passed and it was Alinta’s time to get married. Her husband, Murra and her left but as they were leaving they saw more ‘ghosts’ in their boat. They ran back screaming and the men and head of fire ran with their spears to see what was happening. They found a group of men who head of fire knew.
The European’s offered gifts if the Indigenous people allowed them to stay. They agreed. The Europeans soon left taking head of fire with them.
Another two years passed and Alinta had a baby. She had come home to her tribe and the women were out hunting when they spotted that the men were back. Except this time they were on spiritual land. Head of fire was there too. During an argument a woman was shot and the men once again went to where the men were spotted. They found air of fire and the European’s on their horses. They speared one of the European’s and told hair of fire that he had disobeyed them. They speared hair of fire too.
A few days passed and the Indigenous people were sleeping and the European’s came on their horses shotting everyone as the Indigenous people had killed their men. The next morning Alinta and her child came out from hiding. Everyone else was dead. Alinta and her child were the only survivors.
In the year of 1838 seven white people killed 28 Aboriginals in a maraca. When the inspector came he was horrified to find bodies burning on a fire. Many of the men didn’t want the inspector to say anything as they knew what the consequences could be.
The matter was taken to court over the matter of an Aboriginal man ‘Daddy’ who had be murdered in this horrific scene. The court argued that it wasn’t an issue but a team of men said “no it isn’t right that men, women and children get murdered because of their skin colour and we then don’t do anything about it!” The men were pleaded as not guilty.
The men then argued about another offence in the maraca that there was a bashing and the burning of a boy named Charlie. The discussed the issue and the child was then unable to be unidentified as being Charlie but they still argued that it wasn’t right to kill any child! The owner of the land admitted to being suspended which gave the court an opinion of him to be lying. The Judge then spoke his opinion saying is isn’t right to kill someone no matter what coloured skin they have. The jury then decided and read out their verdict as them being not guilty, until one man stood up and said it has been misread. They were not guilty to the last case but to the murder of a child they are guilty. All of the seven men were sentenced to death by being hung.
After this event occurred in court more white people started killing aboriginals because they were angry that seven men were found guilty to killing aboriginals.
On the 26th January 1788 , the first fleet of Convicts came to Australia,(penal Colonies). Originally the Europeans though the lad was empty because the Indigenous people always moved around. There was nothing as the Indigenous people never built houses, shops, farms, crop, ect. They used the natural things so the Europeans thought they could claim it. When the Indigenous people and Europeans met the Indigenous people thought they were ghosts! The Europeans expected the Ingenious people to dress, act and have beliefs like them. The European's weren't appreciative of the Indigenous people and they broke their society. They treated the Ingenious people with no respect. The clash of the two different cultures were a bad combination as they had different religions, laws, rules, trades and ways.
A free settler is a person who immigrated to a new area or land and climes land and becomes a local resident. In 1831, 200 000 people immigrated to Australia. Many came from Britten or Ireland. Some also came from Canada, Greece, China and Germany. The first free settlers and well of but later took advantage of the land opportunities. In 1835 a boundary system was introduced to improve the quality or immigrates. However the free settlers started pushing beyond the colony boundaries and taking whatever good land they could find. The assigned convicts provided a work force to help make roads and houses for the free settlers. In 1851 there was three new colonies introduced to Australia.
A woman named Caroline Chisholm arrived in Sydney in 1838 along with her husband. She was horrified by the amount of girls who had immigrated to Australia.
A convict is a person who committed a crime in the 1400s and was sent away to another land for their punishment. The first fleet of convicts came in 1788 and among the 11 ships there was 160, 000 people with only 16% of them being women. In 1790 the second fleet arrived in Australia. 1000 convicts died on the journey and 488 who survived were sick when they arrived in Sydney. Convicts could be as young as eight years old and could sentenced for ten years for theft and hung for murder.
They were given harsh punishments for minor crimes like being flogged with the cat-o-nine-tails or put into solitary confinement.
The moon man
The women would go and collect bush tucker for their diet. Everyone was happy. One day the moon man’s sons were teenagers they decided to go and hunt for food.
The sons come across a big billabong. They catch many fish of all kinds. They make a fire to cook the fish but instead of taking the cooked fish back for everyone they decide to have a big fish. They return with only bones.
The father wasn’t happy by this but the boys say that they will go back and try again. The boys return to the billabong and once again they catch many fish of all kinds. They light a fire and cook the fish but once again they eat them ringing home nothing but bones.
That night while the sons were asleep the father made a trap for the boys to take dishing with them. When the morning came the boys went fishing straight away taking the new trap that their father had made for them. They return to the billabong along with their father. While the sons aren’t looking the father beats the sons and says they’re nothing but bones! The sons are in many pieces! He puts their parts in the trap and pushes in the water.
Later when the father is back at home the two mothers are getting worried about their sons. They ask father if he knows where they are and he just replies they’re fishing. The sun had vanished with the sons nowhere to be seen. The mothers go and look for their sons. They find them in the trap in pieces. They are so upset and ask who could do something like this.
They soon realize it was the father and that night while he was sleeping they set his cave on fire burning him to death. As he rises he yells you women will die as I will not!
In order for these two cultures to live together the Europeans forced the Indigenous people to live on 'Special' reserves where they mothers and children were separated. If they crossed over to the European's reserve whilst hunting they were shot at and were called pests. The new diseases brought to Australia killed out many of the Indigenous people. The European's destroyed the land changing the Indigenous people's ways.
It was a cruel way of punishing people. Many of them later stayed in Australia once they had finished their sentence where they could claim land and become a free settler.
In 1841 she set up the first sixteen homes for women and she helped them to get jobs and she wrote them job letters on their behalf.
When all the immigrates arrived to Australia many Aboriginals were forced off the land as the new settlers took up some much land and there was so many coming.
1886- A federal Council meets. The federal council of Australasia was created and a meeting was attended by representatives from each of the six colonies, including New Zealand and Fiji. The main purpose of the meeting was to ask Britain if it would defend the colonies if they were under attack and act as their saviour.
1889- Hendry Parkes talks to Tenterfield. Sir Henry Parkes was an outspoken politician, who was a supporter of Federation. He was the premier of New South Wales (NSW) five times. In August he stopped in Tenterfield from his route from Brisbane to Sydney via train where he spoke to the locals inspiring them to think ‘national’.
1891- A national constitution drafted. It was obvious to politicians and businessmen that a national identity was developing because all colonies shared the same language and values. An Australian Convention was held with the six colonies including New Zealand attended. It was to draft a national establishment. This went on for weeks. The politicians later went back to their own parliaments and discussed the draft. For an unknown reason the draft faltered.
1893- The Corowa Conference. The main focus that the politicians and businessmen discussed was economic issues. People and their goods on trains were searched at the borders as they needed to change trains. This was to make sure that there was no smuggling was occurring.
• Delegate Quick (from Victoria) said governments should ask their ‘voters’ to select representatives for a consistorial convention.
1897-1898- The Federal Constitutional Convention. A draft constitution was taken back to the five governments. The draft plan saw a two house parliament with an upper house of review which would equally signify states and their rights. In September delegates meet again in Sydney and later in January 1898 in Melbourne to consider the changes from the parliaments. The main points were free trade between states and the management of immigration. On the 16th of March 1898, the agreement on a draft structure was made to put to the voters of all colonies.
April 1899- July 1900- The referendum. The votes were cast. (only men could vote at this stage). The referendum was completed by July 1900 after Western Australia’s delay. Most of the votes gave their vote for a National government, the commonwealth of Australia. This would be set up with the terms laid out at the draft. State shares were noticed in the future federal constitution but federal laws would cancel any law where there was a common issue.
1900- Australia becomes a nation. A delegates group travels to London to have a draft constitution approved by the British Parliament. The British state secretary (who was in charge of the colonies) wanted to make changes but the delegates disagreed. The Australian Constitution was approved by the British Parliament, the British Monarch and Queen Victoria who gave it a royal approval (September 1900). It created the rules and controls for Governing Australia and bounded the controls of the federal Parliament and some controls of state parliaments.
1901- Federation. On January the 1st 1901 the Governor general representing Queen Victoria swore in Sir Edmund Barton and eight chosen ministers. They acted as a caretaker government until the first election could be held in March. After the promise the Commonwealth of Australia was announced by sir Edmund in Sydney (Centennial Park). Everyone in Australia was celebrating by decorating buildings, having parties, dances, sports meetings and at night there was fireworks. Now existing was the commonwealth of Australia but it was still a British Territory. Australia’s loyalty to the British ruler was shown by the role of the Governor- General who represented the ruler.
Gold diggers were people in the 1800s who went around places digging up gold. In 1851 the first announcement of gold had been discovered in New South Wales. Gold was later found all over Victoria. People from all over the world came looking for the gold. This was known as the gold rush.
The gold rush is when people had first discovered gold which caused a frenzy throughout the world.
There were reports since 1823 of gold being found in New South Wales and Victoria. Many people didn't want the findings to be reported as guards would leave to search and the convicts would be hard to control. After the discoveries in Victoria, gold continued to be found over the continent for the next 50 years. As for the convicts who found gold they were 'rewarded' with 100 lashes from the cat-o-nine-tails.
Gold was later discovered in 1848 in California. Many people left their farms and businesses to go and find their fortune in Victoria. In 1852 over 50% of Victoria's male population was digging for gold.
There were many theories to how or why the Indigenous people came to Australia. In the last Ice age the sea’s water levels dropped and the continent of Australia expanded by 100-200km making it become bigger. This meant that there was a shorter distance to travel with canoes and rafts. Some included a rise in population in other countries, people slowly moving and expanding to new land and that they were pushed into a new land from bad weather while they were fishing. Another reason why Indigenous people traveled to Australia was from “push” and “pull”. Many reasons they may have been pulled to Australia could have been a supply of food and new land. Some may have been pushed away because of threats like bush fires, droughts and floods.
World War I
In 1914 the Austrian Prince, Archduke Ferdinand visited Bosnia saying “I am going to rule you”. Bosnia didn’t agree with this and shot Archduke Ferdinand and his wife.
Austria then complained to Russia that they needed to make Bosnia apologise and they should be punished. Russia replied no, we are quite happy with what they have done. Austria told Germany what had happened and Germany declared war to Russia and France.
Germany decided to do a surprise attack and went through Belgium taking it over. England heard about what they had done and said that it wasn’t right for them to do that and joined in to help Russia and France. The war became too much for Italy and they left.
Many people joined into the war and Italy came back in towards the end. The United States then came in (near the end of the war) and ended the war.
After the outbreak of war in Gallipoli, Australia decided to go to war to help fight for their mother country. Soldiers rode around to many places over Australia getting men from the age 21 and over to enlist their name to go to war. Only the men who were young, fit and healthy were able to go to war as they didn't want to have men who weren't fit enough to fight.
The men who didn't go to war were looked down on. They would be treated rudely by the society and a woman would give them a white feather in public to make them feel embarrassed and ashamed. However some weren't able to go as they weren't fit and healthy or wasn't over the age of 21.
After men had been recruited to go to war they were sent off to Egypt where they did their training (this was in early 1914).
On 25th April 1915 the Australian's (also known as ANZACs) arrived at Anzac Cove in Gallipoli. They came in on row boats with about 40 men on each boat. They were towed by steamboats and when they got into the shallows they had to row in. When they were on their way in the boats crossed losing their formation. When they were sneaking into Gallipoli one of the boat one of
the steamboats chimney blew us making a spark in the air taking away their hidden cover. The Turks saw the spark and fired at the Australia from the edge of a cliff face. Many Australians were shot in their boats, some jumped into the water and drowned from the wight of their bags and many made it onto the beach on a small area of land. The landing for the Australians was unsuccessful.
The men built trenches as a defense from the Turks. In winter they got flooded. Men were also on the front line and other men were on horse back. Some men at war got shell shock from the constant bombing and shooting around them.
England and Australia could see that they weren't going to win against the Turks and planned a retreat. They later escaped from Gallipoli without the enemy noticing.
Millions of people died in World War I. Most young men joined because they thought it would be a new adventure or a chance to see the world. They thought that they would win the war in a short time but it turned out to be much longer than they first thought.