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Radioactivity

science project
by

A F

on 6 April 2013

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Transcript of Radioactivity

Radioactivity Nuclear radiation Radioactivity Radioactive Decay Mass Number Alpha Decay Beta Decay Isotopes The ability of some elements to
give off nuclear radiation. The release of an alpha particle
from a nucleus. The sum of the proton and neutrons
in an atom. The release of a beta particle
from a nucleus. Atoms that have the same number
of protons but have different numbers
of neutrons. High-enerygy paricles and rays that are emitted by the nuclei of some atoms; alpha paricles, beta particles, and gamma rays are types of nuclear radiation. The process in which the nucleus are a radioactive atom releases nuclear radiation Gamma Decay The release of gamma rays from a nucleus Half-Life The amount of time it takes for one half of the nuclei of a radioactive isotope to decay. Energy From The Nucleus Nuclear Fission The process in which a large nucleus splits into two smaller nuclei. Nuclear Chain Reaction A continuous series of nuclear fission reactions Atomic Energy http://www.livescience.com/23326-fission.html Two or more nuclei with small masses joined together, or fused, to form a larger, more massive nucleus Nuclear Fusion http://jaipals.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/nuclear-fusion-1.jpg Nuclear Radiation can
damage living and
nonliving matter Nuclear Radiation can damage
living and nonliving matters Use of radioactive materials
include detecting defects in
materials, sterilizing products,
tracing a plant's or animal's
use of an element, diagnosing
illness, and producing
electrical energy. Radioactive nuclei give off
nuclear radiation in the form
of alpha particles, beta
particles, and gama rays
through a process called
radioactive decay. An alpha particle
is composed
of two protons
and two nuetrons What is Nuclear Fission? During beta decay, a beta particle is released from the nucleus. a beta particle particle can be an electron or a positron. Gamma decay occurs with alpha decay and beta decay when particles in the nucleus rearrange and emit energy in the form of gamma rays Gamma rays penetrate matter better than alpha or beta particles. Beta particles penetrate matter better than alpha particles. Proton- The positively charged particles of the nucleus; the number of protons in a nucleus is the atomic number that determines the identity of an element. Neutrons- the particles of the nucleus that have no charge Hydrogen is an isotope because it has one proton and no neutrons
The age of some objects can be determined by half-lives, such as the 5,300 year old Iceman http://fallout.wikia.com/wiki/File:Nuclear_explosion.jpg Nuclear fission occurs when a massive, unstable nucleus breaks into two less massive nuclei. Nuclear fission is used in power plants to generate electricity. Nuclear fusion occurs when two or more nuclei combine to form a larger nucleus. The sun's energy comes from the fusion of hydrogen to form helium. The energy released by nuclear fission and nuclear fusion is produced when matter is converted into energy Fuel for nuclear fusion is plentiful, and only small amounts of radioactive waste products are produced. However, fusion is not currently a practical energy source because of the large amounts of the large amount of energy needed to heat and contain the hydrogen plasma. Nuclear power plants use nuclear fission to supply many homes with electrical energy without releasing carbon dioxide or other gases into the atmosphere. A limited fuel supply, radioactive waste products, and the possible release of radioactive material are disadvantages of fussion By: Sarah Minihan and Aubrey Frabutt
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