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The Native Peoples of North America

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Imrin K

on 21 January 2013

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Transcript of The Native Peoples of North America

How does each nation find food? Harleen What is the Sun Dance? Imrin The Native Peoples
of
North America Imrin, Harleen, Jasleen, Melissa, Gillian,
Karamat, Mandwinder & Prabjot. How did the Inuit and the Iroquois make
their clothing? Jasleen How do they make their drums? Gillian What are longhouses? Prabjot ? Melissa What are totem poles? Manwinder How did they survive in
harsh conditions? Karamat They would hunt bison for food, eating their meat and blubber. They would lead them to areas where they got trapped, like cliffs or fenced areas, where they could easily catch the bison. -central religious festival of the Plains people
-held during the summer
-year of preparation
-receive permission form medicine man and elders
-an arbor was built
-focus of dancing is the central post
-dancers prayed and danced non-stop for 3-4 days
-didn't eat or drink during ceremony
-wooden skewers inserted in the chest and back of dancers
-must dance till ropes tore out of flesh
-Sun Dance was prohibited when Natives were forced into reservations
-1978 American Indian Religious Freedom Act returned right of practising traditional ceremonies to Native people aboriginals had to be prepared for the up coming winters People had to make these types of houses that were underground called pit houses which were small and dangerous the roofs may collapse on them sometimes they pits would root and then collapse some maybe infested with rodents insects and worst of all rattlesnakes. The pit houses were rather small dark and smoky but it is warm. If they lived inland they would hunt animals like caribou, polar bears and muskox. If they lived on the coast they would fish for seal, walrus, whales and many other types of fish. INUIT THE PEOPLES OF THE PLAINS IROQUOIS They would use agriculture to get
food. They would grow corn (maize), sunflowers, beans and squash. Corn, beans and squash were referred to as the three sisters. • Largest totem pole is in Alert bay BC it is standing at 173 feet. • Totem poles are carved from the trunks of mostly cedar trees. • Totem poles affront house should a sign of success from families.
• Early Europe explorers thought they were a sign of worship but they are not a sign of worship.
• Shame poles were to shame people and unpaid debts by some people.
• Making of a totem pole is used by modern day methods.
• Some people claim that totem poles were used as talismans to ward off evil spirits or that the construction of totem poles was once a magical practice.
• . Poles illustrate stories that commemorate historic persons, represent shamanic powers, or provide objects of public.
• Totem poles were also used by people for communication with god.
• A lot of totem poles have a deep meaning behind them.
• Totem poles come in different shapes and sizes some are under 10 feet some go over 100 feet.
• There are all kinds of Totems example: shame poles and frog poles Before the winter struck people had to hunt animals such as deer and also gathered edible plants and roots such as wild onion root, they also gathered berries. They would store these foods in their pit houses so they could eat during the cold winter. The Inuit people made their clothes mostly from caribou skin. They also wore clothes made from dogs, squirrels, wolf, fox, marmot, bird skin, polar bear, feathers, and sealskin. They used sealskin to made snowshoes as well. Men and women wore similar clothing with each other. The similar clothing they would wear are parkas, boots, mittens, trousers, and pants. The Iroquois were a little different from the Inuit. The Iroquois wore clothes mostly made from deerskin. They decorated their clothes with porcupine quills, feathers, dyed hair, beads, flowers, and clan symbols. Men wore feathered hats, leggings, and in summer they wore fringed deerskin shirts. Women wore skirts, dresses, leggings under dresses, vest, and sashes around their waists. These two pictures on the sides are showing the type of clothes that men and women wore for the cold winters. These pictures are showing the clothes that the Iroquois wore. They are also showing how their clothes are decorated with various types of items. There are many different nations which had to go through these rough times such as the Inuit, Chilcotin, Lillooet, Nlaka Pamux, Nicola, Okanagan, Shuwap, and the Ktunaya. This was the types of conditions they lived in. Deer hide is one of the types of material they used to make clothing. This is a pit house. THE PEOPLES OF THE NORTHWEST COAST They collected food by the season. In the winter they did little hunting and gathering and ate stored food and in spring they collected shellfish. In the summer they fished for salmon, hunted birds, gathered different types of plants and berries and in autumn they grew potatoes. THE PEOPLES OF THE PLATEAU They fished for salmon and hunted deer. They also gathered plants, berries and edible roots like
wild onions, wild lily bulbs and roots of balsam. :For the handles on the back of the drum they still use the moose or deer skin like a handle but they make the like small strips of it and put a handle in the middle of it. To make a drum you can use deer or moose but most people use the moose skin because its stronger. You let the skin soak in water for about a week. After the skin has soaked in water you take it out and let it dry for a little while, but before you see its drying you stretch it out around the rim of the drum.

Longhouses
•Longhouse are long and narrow bark covered houses
•These houses contain one large extended family
•All women and children living in the longhouse were in the same clam
•They would make a 18 feet fence around the longhouse so it is protected from attacks
•They made gardens around their houses to have food supply berries squash and more vegetables and fruits
•These are constructed with a long wooden pole
•They are set in the ground with the Y fork at the top
•These poles are set to form a long rectangle
•The elder mother and her husband and each of the daughter's families had their own living area within the longhouse
•Above the door of the longhouse was a painting or carvings of their clan
•The lower platform of the longhouse was raised 1 foot to protect the people from dampness or flooding
•They also had a big storage rooms in their houses to store food and vegetables
•A platform that was a foot off the ground and approximately13 feet long and 6 feet wide formed the bed and sitting area
•Most longhouses reach over 300 ft.
•Strips of bark were then sewed sideways through the lines of poles to make more waterproof walls
•Longhouses were made with fireplaces to keep them warm in the cold weather and to dry their clothes
•They had holes on top of the house to make sure the smoke coming from the food and fireplace doesn’t make them lose oxygen and die
• But having holes on their rooftop also was a problem in the rain and winter
•These longhouses are built with logs or split-log frame and covered with split log planks Cree Indians performing the Sun Dance This is the Sun-Pole Birds-eye view of the Sun Dance Ceremony
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