Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

OMED0072 - Introduction to Haematology and Blood Transfusion

Year 1 OMED0072 Introduction to Medical Science
by

Paul Dyer

on 15 April 2016

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of OMED0072 - Introduction to Haematology and Blood Transfusion

What is Haematology?
Why do we care about Haematology?
Haematology
and
Blood Transfusion

Big Questions
Access the online environment
Find information relating to Haematology and Blood Transfusion
Negotiate the e-journals and e-books provided by the univeristy
Manage information.......
Make Sure You Can


How do we find out more information about haematology?
What text books are recommended for this course?
Do we really have to study this?
Any Questions?
Yes!
http://portal.gre.ac.uk
....And in the beginning there was the Bone Marrow....
The Red Blood Cell
More than just a bag of haemoglobin!
The Importance of Shape in Function
HAEMOLYTIC ANAEMIA
Poikilocytosis
Hereditary Spherocytosis
Hereditary Eliptocytosis
The Importance of Size
Macrocytosis - too big
Microcytosis - too small
Nurtritional Anaemias
Liver Disease
Membranopathies
The White Blood Cell
The Importance of Enzymes
Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase
Immune Function
Phagocytosis
Chemotaxis
Margination / Extravasation
The Humble Platelet
More than just a fragment of cytoplasm!
Leukaemia
Acute:
Myeloblastic
Lymphoblastic

Chronic:
Myelogenous
Lymphocytic
Parasites
Malaria
Babesiosis
Maltese cross
Acute Leukaemia
Lymphoblastic
Diagnosis:
30% blast in BM at presentation
Lymphoid or Myeloid
ALL – no differentiation
AML – some differentiation to granulocyte, monocytes
Myeloblastic
AML-M0
AML-M1
AML-M2
AML-M3
AML-M4
AML-M5
AML-M6
AML-M7
Chronic Leukaemia
CML
Leukocytosis – Very high WBC
+/- Anaemia
+/- Thrombocytopenia
Cytogenetics – Ph chromosome
CLL
Lymphocytosis >10x109/L
40% infiltration of BM
Smear cells
Anaemia/TP prognostic indicator
Advanced CLL – BM infiltration
Haemostasis
Vascular Biology
Blood Transfusion
Serology
Blood group Antigens
Haemolysis
Serious Hazards of Transfusion
Intravascular
Extravascular

ABO mismatch
Rh and Other Ag Mismatch
TRALI
TTI
Importance
Blood Groups and Antigens
Blood Components
Laboratory Haematology
Major Techniques
Spectrometry
Impedance - Coulter
Cytochemistry
Flow cytometry
Microscopy
Immunoassays
Coulter Pricniple
Flow Cytometry
Full Blood Count
Red Blood Cell Parameters
Erythrocyte count (RBCC)
HCT/PCV - Haematocrit / packed cell volume
MCV - Mean cell volume
MCH - Mean cell haemoglobin
MCHC - Mean cell haemoglobin concentration
RDW - Red cell distribution width
Platelet Parameters
Plt - Platelet count
MPV - Mean Platelet volume
PDW - Platelet distribution width
Haemostasis
PT - Prothrombin Time
APTT - Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time
TT - Thrombin Time
FBG - Fibrinogen
BT - Bleeding time
Haematinics
Vitamin B12
Red cell Folate
Serum Folate
Ferritin
Transcobalamin
Other
Haemoglobinopathies
- HbS, HbC, HbE etc.....
Thalassaemias
- HbA / HbB levels
Plasma Proteins
- Haptoglobins
SO NOW WHAT !
Haemoglobin
Haemoglobinopathies
Thalassaemia
Haematology is the study of blood, composed of plasma (~54%), and the formed elements which are:

1. The erythrocytes (RBCs) (~45%) - Contain haemoglobin
Function in the transport of O2 and CO2

2. The Leukocytes (WBCs) (~1%) - involved in the body’s defence against invasion of pathogens & foreign antigens.

Platelets (thrombocytes) are involved in haemostasis which forms a barrier to limit blood loss at an injured site.
The routine blood tests performed in a haematology lab are:

RBCs,
WBCs,
Coagulation,
Blood transfusion

Under normal conditions the production, release, and survival of blood cells is a highly regulated process. 

Haematologic abnormalities may result when there is an imbalance between cell production, release, and/or survival.
Anaemia
Reduction of the number of red blood cells:

Depressed RBC production
Infiltration of bone marrow (leukemia)
Total marrow shut down (aplastic anaemia / drugs).
Dietary deficiency
Iron, Vit B12, folate & carrier plasma proteins.
Loss of mature RBCs
Drugs, infections, fevers, auto-immunity & bleeding.
Haemoglobinopathies
Sickle cell disease, Thalassaemia.
Concept of Normality
Impossible to define as a single state
Most frequent state in a given population
Most quantifiable biological characteristic are normally distributed
Gaussian Bell
What is Normal?
Full transcript