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OMED0072 - Introduction to Haematology and Blood Transfusion
Transcript of OMED0072 - Introduction to Haematology and Blood Transfusion
Why do we care about Haematology?
Access the online environment
Find information relating to Haematology and Blood Transfusion
Negotiate the e-journals and e-books provided by the univeristy
Make Sure You Can
How do we find out more information about haematology?
What text books are recommended for this course?
Do we really have to study this?
....And in the beginning there was the Bone Marrow....
The Red Blood Cell
More than just a bag of haemoglobin!
The Importance of Shape in Function
The Importance of Size
Macrocytosis - too big
Microcytosis - too small
The White Blood Cell
The Importance of Enzymes
Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase
Margination / Extravasation
The Humble Platelet
More than just a fragment of cytoplasm!
30% blast in BM at presentation
Lymphoid or Myeloid
ALL – no differentiation
AML – some differentiation to granulocyte, monocytes
Leukocytosis – Very high WBC
Cytogenetics – Ph chromosome
40% infiltration of BM
Anaemia/TP prognostic indicator
Advanced CLL – BM infiltration
Blood group Antigens
Serious Hazards of Transfusion
Rh and Other Ag Mismatch
Blood Groups and Antigens
Impedance - Coulter
Full Blood Count
Red Blood Cell Parameters
Erythrocyte count (RBCC)
HCT/PCV - Haematocrit / packed cell volume
MCV - Mean cell volume
MCH - Mean cell haemoglobin
MCHC - Mean cell haemoglobin concentration
RDW - Red cell distribution width
Plt - Platelet count
MPV - Mean Platelet volume
PDW - Platelet distribution width
PT - Prothrombin Time
APTT - Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time
TT - Thrombin Time
FBG - Fibrinogen
BT - Bleeding time
Red cell Folate
- HbS, HbC, HbE etc.....
- HbA / HbB levels
SO NOW WHAT !
Haematology is the study of blood, composed of plasma (~54%), and the formed elements which are:
1. The erythrocytes (RBCs) (~45%) - Contain haemoglobin
Function in the transport of O2 and CO2
2. The Leukocytes (WBCs) (~1%) - involved in the body’s defence against invasion of pathogens & foreign antigens.
Platelets (thrombocytes) are involved in haemostasis which forms a barrier to limit blood loss at an injured site.
The routine blood tests performed in a haematology lab are:
Under normal conditions the production, release, and survival of blood cells is a highly regulated process.
Haematologic abnormalities may result when there is an imbalance between cell production, release, and/or survival.
Reduction of the number of red blood cells:
Depressed RBC production
Infiltration of bone marrow (leukemia)
Total marrow shut down (aplastic anaemia / drugs).
Iron, Vit B12, folate & carrier plasma proteins.
Loss of mature RBCs
Drugs, infections, fevers, auto-immunity & bleeding.
Sickle cell disease, Thalassaemia.
Concept of Normality
Impossible to define as a single state
Most frequent state in a given population
Most quantifiable biological characteristic are normally distributed
What is Normal?