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EUROPE BEFORE TRANSATLANTIC TRAVEL
Transcript of EUROPE BEFORE TRANSATLANTIC TRAVEL
Greek and Roman Government
THE MIDDLE AGES
Roman Empire fell, groups from north and east moved into Roman Empire's former lands. By the early 500s Europe was divided into many small kingdoms. This marked the beginning of the Middle Ages. It lasted about 1,000 years.
Brought new ways of thinking to Europe.
Began in Italy and spread to other parts of Europe.
European rulers began to increase their power over the nobles. Fewer invasions from outside forces helped bring a period of order and stability to Europe.
EUROPE BEFORE TRANSATLANTIC TRAVEL
great teacher, wanted people to
think and question their own beliefs
Taught that people should live lives based on reason, or clear and ordered thinking.
During the Classical Period, around the 5th or 4th century BC, Greece was organized into several hundred city-states which became the foundation for Greek civilization.
Athens was the first Greek city-state to establish a
democracy- a form of government in which people rule themselves.
All male citizens had the right to gather in assembly to debate and create the city's laws. Because all male citizens participated directly in government, it is called DIRECT DEMOCRACY.
Rome followed Greece's example by establishing a form of democratic government ...
Rome Republic 509 BC. Romans elected officials to rule the city yearly. This was not considered a democracy.
Later Romans established one government in three parts. Parts were made up of elected representatives who protected the city and its residents.
Laws were written and on display.
Roman concepts of equality before the law and innocent until proven guilty protected roman citizens' rights.
Democracy vs. Republic
ROMAN LAW & GOVERNMENT
-Every citizen votes on every issue
Ideas are debated at an assembly of all citizens.
-Citizens elect representatives to vote on issues
-Ideas are debated at an assembly of representatives
US POLITICAL SYSTEM
citizens vote for representatives, making the nation a democratic republic.
The Catholic church served as a strong unifying force among the states and people of Europe. During Middle Ages, nearly everyone was considered christian and life revolved around it.
In late 1000s, long series of wars between European Christians and Muslims in Southwest Asia.
Turks had captured Palestine, the Holy Land where Jesus had lived.
Christians no longer felt safe to travel there on pilgrimages, so they were called upon to go and capture it.
Although they failed, the Crusades changed Europe forever.
Trade between Europe and Asia grew= apricots, rice, cotton cloth, and ideas from Muslim thinkers.
At the beginning of the Middle Ages towns were small but as technology was developed, farmers could produce more food which caused the population to grow. (Like the Native Americans)
Travel became safer as organized political system developed and protection increased for merchants.
Marco Polo in 1271 journey from Europe to China along part of the old Silk Road. He spent 20 years in Asia. When he returned he brought back stories of spices, coal and paper money.
Trade routes spread and Merchants brought goods from Asia and Africa.....Including THE BLACK DEATH.
Travel Trade, and Towns
The Black Death
Disease that spread across Europe killing an estimated 25 Million People.
Shortage of workers.
Peasants and serfs could now demand payment for their labor. They began to move to cities.
The growth of trade led to the decline of feudalism. A new middle class of artisans and merchants emerged, and trade cities became commercial centers. Trade associations called guilds became an influential part of European life.
Great Love for Education and Knowledge
-Discoveries of ancient writings and thinking.
-Search for knowledge spread to all fields....art, literature, science, and political thought.
-Focused on people rather than religion.
-Some of the greatest paintings and sculptures we still enjoy today
-Michelangelo and Leonardo Da Vinci greatest artist of this time.
-Da Vinci was also an inventor, engineer and mapmaker.
Dante Alighieri- a politician and poet. He choose to write in Italian, the common language of the people. This gave ordinary people the opportunity to read Dante's work.
Prior to the Renaissance all writing was written in Latin the language of the church.
Scientific and Mathematics Advances
-Created symbols for the square root and positive and negative numbers.
-Discovered the earth moves around the sun
-Used measurements and calculations to create better, more accurate maps.
THE PRINTING PRESS
Johannes Gutenburg- mid 1400's developed a printing press that used moveable type. This allowed an entire page to be printed at once.
The development help the spread of new ideas. For the first time, thousands of people could read the same books and share ideas about them.
Economic Changes Affect Trade
-Growth of trade and services at the beginning sparked commercial revolution.
-Florence Genoa, Milan, and Venice developed into important trading centers....Ports along the Mediterranean Sea.
-Made some families of these cities very wealthy.
-As trade and commerce grew...the need of banks grew.
-During this time joint-stock companies were created.
Wrote a work called "The Republic" which describes an ideal society based on justice and fairness for everyone.