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Sociology - Beliefs in Society

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Bethany Smith

on 5 June 2013

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Transcript of Sociology - Beliefs in Society

Unit 3 - Beliefs in Society: an overview By Bethany Smith Beliefs in Society THEORIES Functionalism Conventional
Marxism Neo-Marxism Althusser
(Marxist) Feminism Phenomenology Social Action
Theory Positive view of
religion SSSOCCCHIV Sociologists Durkheim Malinowski Bellah Parsons Social Solidarity
Social Stability
Social Cohesion
Value Consensus Sociologists Negative view
of religion Reproduces and legitimizes inequality
False class consciousness
Opposition Key terms Marx Engels (Humanist) Sociologists Positive view
of religion Key terms Gramsci Maduro Bloch Dual character
Liberation theology - organic intellectuals
Working/true class consciousness Structural determinism RSA (Repressive State Apparatus)
ISA (Ideological State Apparatus) -Economic level
-Political level
-Ideological level force

ideas Negative view Sociologists Negative view
of religion Key terms The sacred and
the profane Totemism Collective conscience Cognitive functions religion is the origin of human thought,
reason and science. Psychological functions Outcome = important but
uncontrollable and uncertain At times of life crisis Lagoon fishing = safe --> no ritual
Ocean fishing = dangerous and uncertain --> ritual birth, puberty, marriage, death performed by religion when... Values and meaning Creates and legitimises
society's central values Is the primary source of meaning Civil Religion eg. USA Religion as ideology Religion and alienation liberation theology organic intellectuals = voice
lead working class into gaining a true class consciousness hegemony Reproduces and legitimises inequality
Stained glass ceiling
Patriarchy Watson Armstrong Woodhead El Saadawi de Beauvoir the veil religion gives women status & respect
and the veil women had high status roles in the past hidden face of eve second sex Berger Positive view Key terms Sacred canopy
Universe of meaning
Pluralisation of lifeworlds
Anomie/homelessness everything that a religion owns - it's cultural identity when there is religious pluralisation and there's lots of these universes of meaning (lifeworlds) social change Weber spirit of capitalism
and the protestant ethic

calvinists-- ascetic & this wordly Religious Organisations
and Movements Typologies Reasons for NRMs Factors affecting their survival Troltsch & Niebuhr Stark & Bainbridge Wilson Wallis Barker Yinger church - sect - denomination - cult M
I embership
ttitudes to wider society
onopoly of truth
deology my house will rott
and might cave in "unideal types"
can't classify 3 types of cult: client
movement "what do we need to do in order to be saved?" classifies them based on asking: degree of commitment required roots/origins of the organisation/NRM eg. Zen Buddhism is and offshoot of Buddhism degree of institutionalisation/length of existence eg. Christianity will be one of the first ones,
NAMs will be last World Affirming

World Rejecting

World Accommodating

Middle Ground Social Change / disruption Relative Deprivation ..or why people join them Marginalisation Spiritual Void/Vacuum / Cultural Turn eg. Black Muslims (american dream) eg. Black Muslims / Scientology eg. Black Muslims / groups like the lower class, women, young, old, ethnic minorities the world's now inner/self directed rather than other directed NAMs post-modern focused on self-spirituality don't tend to be congregational - individual spiritual quest/journey less commitment
required middle class/female/
middle aged Heelas and Woodhead:
Kendal Project - measured extent of religious revival FUNCTIONS of NAMs.. source of identity consumer culture rapid social change decline of organised religion recruitment growth into denomination charismatic leader dies generational effect need for it
disappears Religion, Renewal
and Choice Religious Market Theory Existential
Security Theory Believing Without
Belonging Jesus in
Disneyland Spiritual
Shopping Grace Davie people are still religious
but just don't go to church Norris & Inglehart people are only religious
when they can't ensure
their survival --poor countries/people Danielle Hervieu-Leger people 'pick & mix' aspects
from different religions to
make one that suits them Stark & Bainbridge religion thrives when there's religious
pluralism, declines when there's only
one religion - improving service (beans) David Lyon people find spiritual experiences in other places than the church, eg. disneyland Religion in a
Global Context Economic Development Clash of Civilisations Cultural Defence
/ Transition Religious
Fundamentalism Meera Nanda - India Berger - Pentecostalism Redding - Tiger Economies new middle class, worshipped lowly
gods as they encouraged wealth
--economic development in india

hinduism becoming civil religion similar to calvinism - this worldly
and ascetic so capitalism suceeded
-also need natural resources --north
and south brazil confucianism....... Poland - them and soviet communism
Iran - them and westernisation Bruce Transition helps integrate/support migrants when moving country Huntington several civilisations - shared religion

universalistic -- looking at similarities/what civ's share
paticularistic -- look at differences/individual civ's

"west and the rest" Criticisms Jackson


Horrie & Chippindale


Norris & Inglehart orientalism divisions within civ's misleading ideology hostility is from oppression sexuality divides west and islam Characteristics Why join? literal interpretations of holy book reject other religions/ideas claim monopoly of truth anti-cosmopolitanism don't think reflexively anti-liberal reaction to religious pluralism reaction to globalisation which brings risk, uncertainty and choice acts as cultural defence because of globalisation reaction of liberalised attitudes claims monopoly of truth... persuasive & convincing Secularisation Religion and
Social Change Wilson's
Definition The Debate Causes Religion, Science
and Ideology Promote


Reverse Link to Weber Social Protest Movements Society changes
religion Belief Systems Ideological Role Open

Closed "Secularisation is the process by which
religious beliefs, practices and insititutions
lose their social significance." Pro Sec Anti Sec Weber

(Christianity RIP)




Scientists Berger
(pluralisation of lifeworlds,
anomie, sacred canopy)


(believing without belonging)

(jesus in disneyland)

(spiritual shopping)

Stark and Bainbridge
(religious market theory)

Norris and Inglehart
(existential security theory) Darling Shortly I'm Going To Purposefully Shop Really Drunk D
D isenchantment
ecularisation of religious institutions
eligious pluralism/diversity
isengagement/structural differentiation de Martin Luther King
Liberation Theology Roman Catholic Church Religious Fundamentalism
(NCR in america) American Civil Rights - MLK
Liberation Theology - Romero & Torres
Burmese Monks Church of England Religion
Political Belief = something you see to be true Science is ideological
eg.creation of weapons of mass destruction powerful countries have - also global warming Some would argue that all belief systems are ideological (allow one group to control another) Marxists Feminists Ruling class control
subject class Men control women Science (according to Popper) Religion Science (according to Kuhn) falsification verification Paradigms..
theories that are taken as true and reject others until massively challenged.

Claim monopoly of truth. open to being proved wrong
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