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A2 politics revision
Transcript of A2 politics revision
Originally inter-state - between Iraq and the US led 'coalition of the willing'. Example: Human rights Humanitarian Intervention Key examples Kosovo 1999 - fears about ethnic cleansing of Albanian poplulation, air-strikes by NATO, forced Serbs to withdraw their forces from Kosovo. Somalia 1992- Warlords prevented food getting to civilians during the civil war and caused a famine. UN authorised and US led (failed) Definition: Military intervention carried out in persuit of humanitarian objectives rather than strategic. Usually by one country against another without the latters consent. Came about in 1990's post cold-war. Why? Realists- argue humanitarian considerations often overlapped with concerns about the national intrest. EXAMPLE: US intervention in Haiti partly motivated by a desire to stem refugees to the USA.
24/7 news- puts pressure on governments to act in humanitarian crisis. EXAMPLE: The lack of intervention in Rwanda, sometimes called 'The CNN effect', makes it very difficult for governments to restrict their moral responisibility to there own people.
The end of Cold War rivalry- the emergance of the USA as the world's sole superpower, makes it easier to build consensus amongst major powers favouring intervention.EXAMPLE: Russia and China in their early stages of economic emergance were not strongly inclined to block or challenge the USA.
High expectations about building a new world order- politicans more willing to accept the doctrine of human rights. For Kofi Annan, and Blair the idea of human rights provided a basis for attempts to establish when states had the rights to intervene.
Wheeler 2000- in a global age, states cannot restrict their moral responsibilites to their own people. Controversial wars: Iraq + Afghanistan have been justified by Humanitarian grounds. Meant to prevent future 9/11s and Rwanda's. Technically, they are not humanitarian, there were too many other intrests at stake (military, economic etc.). Rhetorically promoted as humanitarian intervention by politicans. EXAMPLE: In Afghanistan the Taliban seen to have established brutal + repressive regime, which violated women's rights, which excluded them from society. EXAMPLE: Iraq, regime change meant to bring about greater respect for Human Rights. But this is questionable? Nature and types of Human rights First generation: Civil and political rights Second generation: Economic, social and cultural rights. Third generation: Solidarity (collective) rights Definition Human rights are rights to which people are entitled by virtue of being human. It is a univeral concept and is set out in a collection of UN and other treaties and conventions. Universal declaration of Human rights Challenges to Human rights War on terror Pre war on terror people were of the opinion there had been too few humanitarians (EG UN failure to intervene in Rwanda).
Post war on terror, people largely of the opposite opinion. Heywood 2011 says that the war on terror has contaminated the ideals of humanitarian intervention. Pre War on Terror: the model of humanitarian intervention was limited, to restore peace and order militarily, so that necessary aid can be distributed.
There was no idea of reconstructing and governing a country. This came about throguh the War of Terror. This can be seen as the absorption of humanitarian intervention into a broader notions of Liberal interventionism Assumptions:
Liberal market values, democracy and capitalism are globally applicable.
In a situation where these cannot be achieved because of the population, due to an insurmountable obstacle (EG a repressive dictator) liberal countries have a responsibility to intervene.
Intervention could involve economic sanctions, diplomatic pressure or military invasion.
This means a longer-term campaign of regime change and structural alteration. Criticism:
It's supposedly humanitarian aims often mask underlying economic or political objectives that are not actually in the intrest of the country that is the object of intervention. Domestic population will become fed up with invasion, even if it was done in their intrests ('body bag effect'). The imposition of democracy and capitalism from above may be ineffective, due to cultural, economic and social differences, and may alienate the population that is meant to be being helped. Clash of Civilisations There is a clear disitiction between military and civilian. Wars are often mre symmeric, the sides are even. In Favour There is evidence of an increasing impact of culture (including race and religion) in world politics.EG The rise of fundamentalist Islam has led to the USA fighting the Taliban in Afghanistan and Pakistan. There is some evidence of an increase in tension between civilisations. EG America’s criticism of China’s Human Rights record suggests a cultural incompatibility that causes tension and disagreement. Against Are the civilisations Huntington describes really unified ‘civilisations’? EG some of his civilisations are defined religiously, like Islamic, but some are defined geographically, like Western. Do Catholics and Protestants in Europe share the same culture? Do Europeans share the same culture as America? Do civilisations really take action in the world? Or are nation states the real actors?
EG Germany making a decision to bail out Greece and Ireland in the eurozone crash recently.
EG France criticising the USA’s War on Terror Some different civilisations seem to coexist peacefully. So perhaps Huntington is wrong in thinking that cultural difference necessarily leads to conflict?EG Turkey, a Muslim country, borders with Europe and has applied to join the E.U. It made the application in 1987, and in 2005 its application was formally recognised and negotiations began. Most wars happen between countries in the same civilisation, not between different civilisations.EG North and South Korea are from the same culture, but have different ideologies- North Korea follows the ‘Juche ideology of self reliance’. Does this suggest that ideology, not culture, causes conflict? Globalisation: economic co-dependence
EG When Standard & Poor downgraded the US economy’s credit rating in Summer 2011, Asian markets fell. Does this suggest economics is more important than culture in determining relationships between civilisations? Does this support a more traditional view that nations pursue their own interests? The Clash of Civilizations is a theory, proposed by political scientist Samuel P. Huntington, that people's cultural and religious identities will be the primary source of conflict in the post-Cold War world. This theory was originally formulated in a 1992 lecture at the American Enterprise Institute, which was then developed in a 1993 Foreign Affairs article titled "The Clash of Civilizations?" Huntington believed that while the age of ideology had ended, the world had only reverted to a normal state of affairs characterized by cultural conflict. In his thesis, he argued that the primary axis of conflict in the future will be along cultural and religious lines.
As an extension, he posits that the concept of different civilizations, as the highest rank of cultural identity, will become increasingly useful in analyzing the potential for conflict. a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (10 December 1948). It consists of 30 articles. Represents the first global expression of rights to which all human beings are inherently entitled. Arose directly from the experience of the Second World War. In 1948, Saudi Arabia didn't sign the declaration, arguing it violated Islamic law. Civil liberites Definition It can be seen as freedom from arbitary government interferance, through the limitation of government power. It means being subject only to laws established for the good of the community, especially with regard to freedom of action and speech. Definition Have anti-terror measures eroded evil liberites in the west? Definition A form of political violence that achieves, through creating a climate of fear.
It is not primarily to cause death or destruction, but to make unease. Key perspectives Realist Liberal primarily by non-state actors How to deal with it- is dominated by ethical dilemmas counter- terrorism should fit with the ideals of liberal democracy:
and show no encroachment on civil-liberties. Emphasis on ideology rather than power-seeking is the cause It is Religious and political ideology that creates an exaggerated sense of injustice and hostility- blind the perpetrators of violence to the moral + human costs of actions. The states response to terroism should be uncompromising as it is an attempt to subvert civil order Viewed as violent challenge to an established order, often a bid for power Seeking power states + non-states Political leaders are able to contravene conventional morality to protect the political community 'Dirty hands theory' They only challenge civilians as they are too weak to challenge the state through open armed conflict The motives behind terror are strategic Four types of 'modern terrorism' Insurrection terrorism Aimed at revolutionary overthrow of a state (anarchist + communist terrorism) Aimed at the promotion of a single cause. (Sarin nerve gas- Tokyo subway, by religous cult Aum- Shinryko 1995) Loner or issue terrorism Nationalist terrorism Global terrorism Aims to overthrow colonial rule or occupation, often with the goal of gaining independence for an ethnic, religous or national group. Aimed at inflicting damage and humiliation on a global power or transforming global civilisational relations. (Al- Queda and the 9/11 bombings) Raymond Geuss Communitarian Post-Colonial The Environment Climate change Greenhouse effect Definition Causes the earth's atmosphere traps solar radiation, caused by the presence in the atmosphere of gases such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, and methane that allow incoming sunlight to pass through but absorb heat radiated back from the earth's surface. The greenhouse effect is a result of burning fossil fuels and deforestation (18% of the world's CO2). Why? Natural change changes in energy given by the sun
Changes in the earth's orbit
Volcanic eruptions Deforestation occurs in conjuction with a need for an increase in food production due to the worlds increasing population (now over 7 billion) and a Western need for resources from the rainforests (the Amazon) Debate about its existance Much reduced since 2004-2005 Scientists increasingly agree that it is happening. Sammy Wilson : former enviroment minster for Northen Ireland Wilson maintains that environmentalism is a "hysterical pseudo-religion". Climate change is natural and "beyond our control", so "resources should be used to adapt to the consequences of climate change." http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/gallery/2009/mar/09/climate-change-deniers-monbiot-cards#/?picture=344346483&index=6 Attempts to cooperate internationally
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Climate experts from around the world synthesize the most recent climate science findings every five to seven years and present their report to the world’s political leaders. The IPCC has issued comprehensive assessments in 1990, 1996, 2001 and most recently the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) released in 2007. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Rio Summit systematic scrutiny of patterns of production — particularly the production of toxic components, such as lead in gasoline, or poisonous waste including radioactive chemicals.
alternative sources of energy to replace the use of fossil fuels which are linked to global climate change.
new reliance on public transportation systems in order to reduce vehicle emissions, congestion in cities and the health problems caused by polluted air and smog.
the growing scarcity of water Main issues covered Established UN framework convention on climate change (UNFCCC) Critics, however, point out that many of the agreements made in Rio have not been realized regarding such fundamental issues as fighting poverty and cleaning up the environment. Kyoto Protocol The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. It sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions .These amount to an average of five per cent against 1990 levels over the five-year period 2008-2012. The major distinction between the Protocol and the Convention is that while the Convention encouraged industrialised countries to stabilize GHG emissions, the Protocol commits them to do so. Recognizing that developed countries are principally responsible for the current high levels of GHG emissions in the atmosphere as a result of more than 150 years of industrial activity, the Protocol places a heavier burden on developed nations under the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities.” Weaknesses and problems with efforts made so far developing countries argue they are going through an 'industrial revolution' just as developed countries have done in their histories. The developing world wants to be able to use their natural resources (such as the rainforest) to sell to companies and get money for their own development China is a huge contributer to pollution in the enviroment because it is heavily industrialised, and they are not keen to cut this down because it is their main source of revenue and economic growth through produciton. Possible solutions Reformist solutions Radical solutions Development of green technology Global governance Market ecologism or green capitalism Human ingenuity and the development of green technology (such as draught resistant crops and clean coal) The capacity for innovation has created industrial civilisation so can also be used to generate an enviromentaly friendly version. International regimes and forms of transnational regulation. Offers the prospect of the 'tragedy ofeh commons' can be reduced, even though it can't be removed. This involves attempts to adjust markets to take account of the damage done to the enviroment, making externalities internal to the bissness or organizations that are responsible. Such as green taxes. Ecosocialism Eco-anarchism Ecofeminism Advences an enviromental critique of capitalism. Capitalisms anti-ecological bias come rom its stemin commodification and private property. This reduces nature to mere resources and suggests the only hope for ecological sustainability is the construction of a socialist society. Advances an enviromental critique of hierarchy and authority. Domination over people = domination over nature. Implies the balance of humankind and nature can be restored through an abolition fo the state and the establishment of decentralized, self managing communities. Advances an enviromental critque of patriachy. Domination over women = domination over nature. As men are the enemy of nature because of their reliance on instrumental reason and their inclination to control or subjuate, respect for nature equires the creation of post- patriarcal society. Strengths of Radical ecology:
Attempts to takle the root of all the problems- EG if Capitalism mindsets are the problem then abolishing this would be the best solution
These solutions are drastic, to match the problems that climate change will have. Weakness of Radical ecology:
These solutions are so drastic that oridnary people are unlikley to take them seriously or truly support an entire re-structuring of society
These solutions would be unthinkably expensive to impliment, which in light of the global reccession makes them unattractive to world leaders as well as the oridinary public Liberalism is defective becasue of its view of the ndividual as asocial and atomized.
The self is embedded in society, because they are an embodyment of the society that has shaped his or her desire, values and purposes- THEREFORE AN INDIVIDUALS EXPERIENCES AND BELIEFS CANNOT BE SEPERATED FROM THEIR SOCIAL CONTEXT
There must be a more local idea of human rights and not a universal one. More clearly political rights.
Post colonial thinkers argue the circumstances in societies vary so widley, they have different coneptions of human rights- states should respect each other decisions and be allowed to go their own way The world is like three people on a plank trying to stay afloat, all without common intrest
The beliefs of liberalists, although false and unachievable, still are worth considering because people believe it.
There are not enough resources in the world to fufill a charter such as the UN universal declaration of human rights.
We would achieve more in the world if we resist political theories with an ideological nature. Gayle Binion- feminist Human rights are created and conseptualised from a male viewpoint, therefore tend to act in the intrests of men more than women.
We typically see human rights cases involving individual protesters or activists who are improisoned for the expression of their view or political opinion but international agreements rarely take into account issues that primarily affect women- forced marriage, property ownership , sexual repression and even female genital mutilations- because these are seen as cultural issues. Organisation that promote and protect ICC ICJ NGOs etablished to deal with the arising lack of ICJ to deal with human rights + individuals issues. Individuals, corperations +NGOs are excluded from direct participation in cases, preventing the court taking action on a variety of human rights issues. work directly in the field Campaign on behalf of those they help. Prominent role in drafting of 1990 Convention of the rights of the child. Amnesty international Gain media coverage Pressure maintained EG- 1972- 1973 campaign initiated the 1975 declaration on torture. Limitations Cannot force governments to do anything
Sometimes criticized for adopting a ' bandwagon' approach, joining in on popular issues to enhance their status. www.amnesty.org.uk Poverty and development Debt relief Orthodox development theory