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Artificial Intelligence, Simulation and Modelling

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Donna Feng

on 29 April 2012

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Transcript of Artificial Intelligence, Simulation and Modelling

Stage 1 Intelligence Intelligence is the ability a person has to comprehend, to understand and profit from experience. It is also the ability for people to adapt to new environments or changes in the environment they’re in. Different people can be intelligent in one or more things and it varies in people. intelligence may be tested using intelligence tests.
e.g. the IQ test (intelligent quotient test). However this doesn’t work for adults as learning levels off during adulthood. Measuring intelligence The most widely used tests are the Stanford-Binet, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), and the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (Kaufman-ABC). In higher education, recruitment and career-counselling, a slightly different kind of intelligence test is used. Better known as psychometric tests or aptitude tests, these tend to focus on the abilities required for a specific job and aim to predict a candidate’s future job performance. What's Good and Bad About These Tests? Tests like the more frequesntly used, IQ tests, have good and bad aspects. The IQ test does't actually work for everybody. The results could also cause possible abuses. IQ tests may be helpful in identifying academically gifted children. Even though an IQ test is not an indisputable measure of intelligence, it can single out children who show exceptional promise at a young age. IQ tests can help identify learning disabilities. IQ tests are designed to uncover learning potential. So, an IQ test can help clarify whether a student who is struggling in school or having a limitation in learning potential. In either case, intervention at a younger age can maximize the potential of the student to do as well as possible with schoolwork. Good Things Bad things IQ test results can be misinterpreted as well as abused. The test results tend to vary among racial groups, which has given rise to theories which claim that some racial groups are inherently more intelligent than others. IQ testing can be used to classify children into stereotyped categories, which limit their freedom to choose fields of study. Artificial intelligence Aritificial Intelligence The word artificial, means it is made by humans.
So ARTFICIAL intelligence is something programmed
by humans for it to do a particular job or action. They are used mostly in machines and computer
programs Alan Turing Alan Turing made a test called the 'Turing Test' in 1950. a test in artificial intelligence in which a human interrogator attempts to determine whether an unseen entity is human or a computer It worked by having two people and a computer and one person (the judge) has to guess which one of them is a human or a computer. They had to communicate first, before the person guessed Meanings It is a system that learns during its existence. It continually acts, mentally and externally. An example would be a robot or it could be a human. Intelligent Systems knowledge bases A sort of database for knowledge management for organization of data and retrieval of information. There are three types Machine-Readable, Human-readable and Knowledge base analysis and design. An example would be online retail. Daemon A daemon is a computer program that operates in the background, instead of being under the direct control of a user. they are usually initiated as processes. An example is Agent Intelligent agents use their knowledge to learn or reach goals. A thermostat is an intelligent agent Expert System It is a software that attempts to provide an answer to a problem. An example is a troubleshooting program. computer architecture in which processors are connected in a manner suggestive of connections between neurons;. They can learn by trial and error Neural Networks Requirements for AI 1) type of software: needed for AI:

- Models and Simulations
- Neural Networks
- Expert system 2) Hardware and those that are similar to human:

- printers
- moniters
- actuators: gears to perform actions
- speech synthesis devices 3) Requirements of memory:

- To mimic the human brain an Artificial Intelligence would need at least 100 million megabytes of memory Stage 2 4) Legal Issues-

Copyrights:
- there are intellectual copyright laws. For humans there are copyright laws for original information that needs protection

Rights:
- Robot rights are the obligations of society towards its machines
- may include the right to life and liberty, freedom of thought and expression and equality
This is the same for humans Crime:
- In the future, people may use Artificial Intelligence to extend and improve their criminal activities

Privacy:
- Data mining in large dataabases are harmful to a company's privacy 5) Ethical Issues-

Emotions:
-Simulating emotions in the programs which can be either internal, external or both is only for the benefit of those interacting with the system
-Humans have emotions naturally and can show them Right VS Wrong:

-Autonomous robots and computer programs may be able to make choices and plan actions on their own, without being programmed to. They begin to acquire the responsibility to behave ethically and their designers have a responsibility to make machines that will behave ethically. This would be the same for humans but we live in a society which we are told how to behave normally. Feeling:

Emotions require more than thought. An intelligence could not have feelings, but only show emotion. If one did, the computer firmware would be designed to train the neural network to make sure that those "feelings" are kept as long as possible on the balanced state. - - Conscience:

If creating a machine that can perfectly stimulate consciousness can be managed, then it wouldn't be different from actual consciousness. Uses of AI Medical Research Stock Trading Robot Control Law Scientific Discoveries Toys Who Uses AI Banks use artificial intelligence systems to organise operations, invest in stocks and manage properties A medical clinic can use artificial intelligence systems to organize bed schedules, make a staff rotation, and provide medical information. Robots have been used more often in many industries. They are often do jobs that are considered dangerous to humans. They have been proven effective in jobs that are very repetitive which may lead to mistakes or accidents due to a lapse in concentration and other jobs which humans may find degrading Artificial intelligence is implemented in online help desk systems that can be seen as avatars on web pages THE END Risks-

Monetary:

creating and producing artificial intelligence would cost a lot of money to achieve
great results Health:

Artificial Intelligence can be used in an improper way, for example doing something for the benefit of one person, like chores or getting something for them. AI Ruling:

There are chances that AI could overpower humans.
AI can enslave human beings and start ruling over the world.
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