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Public Speaking- Introduction

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by

Pamela Gerber

on 1 July 2015

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Transcript of Public Speaking- Introduction

PUBLIC SPEAKING
WHY STUDY?
Career
School
Work
Life Skills
Personal
PS vs CONVERSATION?
Similarities
Differences
organized logically
tailored to audience
adapt based on feedback
purposeful
planned/structured
less interactive
formal language
different delivery
CHANNEL:
words, text

\
NOISE
rules and values a group defines to guide conduct and distinguish between right and wrong
Ethical Dilemmas
(right decision not always clear)
Occur at each stage of speech process:
HOW DO

PEOPLE MAKE CHOICES?
Ethical Absolutism:
Situational Ethics:
exhibit the same behavior in all situations
varies on the situation
If it doesn't feel right- it probably isn't
If people think
you are being
unethical- you
will lose your
credibility
FREEDOM OF SPEECH
ETHICAL SPEECH
VS
Freedom of Speech is to speech freely without censorship, limitation, or both.
HATE SPEECH
Discrimination against a group based on: ethnicity, color, race, nationality, gender identity, sexual orientation, religion, etc.
Protected under constitution- but is it ethical?
TIPS
even if it's legal, being unethical can backfire and damage your credibility
just because you can say something, doesn't always mean you should
COMMUNICATING
TRUTHFULLY
What is not the truth:
Lying:
you intentionally deceive
Half-truths:
you tell only part of the truth
False inferences:
you lead audience to incorrect conclusions
omission
taking out of context
TIPS
If you have to lie to make your speech work, pick another topic
Leaving out information that doesn't support your claim can be dangerous and ruin your credibility
ETHICAL LISTENING
Showing courtesy
Demonstrating an open mind
Holding the speaker accountable
TIPS
Golden rule:
be the audience member you would want if you were giving a speech

If you have a question, ask it in a way that doesn't attack the speaker
CREDIBILITY
Source Credibility:
audience's perception of your effectiveness and appropriateness as a communicator
Trustworthiness:
degree to which the audience perceive the presenter as honest and honorable
Competence:
a thorough understanding of your topic
LISTENING
BARRIERS
Information Overload
Personal Concerns
Outside Distractions
Prejudice
TIPS

Monitor emotional reaction
Avoid jumping to conclusions
Listen with eyes and ears
Listen for main points
Be a selfish listener
(identify your listening goals)
Listening Goals
Listen for pleasure
Listen for information
Listen to empathize
Listen to evaluate
LISTEN CRITICALLY
"Critical"
does not mean "harsh" or "negative"
Critical listening:
process of listening to evaluate the quality, appropriateness, value, and importance
Critical thinking:
mental process of making judgements about the conclusions presented
AGENDA
Why is Public Speaking important?
The communication process
Listening
Ethics

ACTIVITIES!
GROUP

DISCUSSION
Q1:
Discuss ethics and freedom of speech. Generate some speech categories that might be ethically questionable (ie. racist speeches)
Q2:
Provide a list of terms that a speaker might want to avoid to be sure they are speaking ethically
Q3:
How can a speaker be "alert" to differences and values among audience members?
Q4:
Name some important values a speaker should have in the speeches (i.e. respect)

Q5:
Name some celebrities/politicians/etc that are good public speakers. What makes them good? Name some bad public speakers? What makes them bad? Are they ethical?
A speaker is using evidence that she knows is out of date, but it supports her point about underage drinking, while the current evidence disproves it. What might a person who believes in situational ethics say about her evidence usage? What would a person who believes ethics are absolute say about her choice? What are some culturally relative factors that might influence the ethicalness of her choice? How would her choice be viewed in light of the ethical guidelines of this campus and this classroom?

DISCUSSION
REFLECT & DISCUSS
Indicate your own reaction to or first impression of each of the following words or phrases. Record your first response: work through quickly. Use the following scale: (5) highly favorable, (4) favorable, (3) neutral, (2) unfavorable, or (1) highly unfavorable


Affordable Health Care Act
Legalizing Marijuana
Gay Rights
Gun Control
Immigration Reform
To what extent do you think your reaction to each of these phrases would affect your ability to concentrate fully and listen actively to a speaker's message?

In other words, based on your varied emotional responses to these phrases, how would each phrase tend to distract or assist you in listening actively to a speech on that topic?

GROUP ACTIVITY
Get into small groups of about 3-4
Write down your thoughts/ feelings/ emotions/ etc towards the listed words
Peace
War
Patriotism
Freedom
Rebellion
Justice
Religion
Duty
Hope
Faith
Unity
Share
Note similarities/differences
researching
, writing
,
delivering
Dilemmas
Symbol Using





Meaning Making
Communication
Verbal:
words, phrases- written, spoken
Nonverbal:
gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, posture, touch, paralanguage, personal appearance
Hi
Source:
presenter/speaker
ENCODE
into
MESSAGE
(verbal/nonverbal)
DECODE: interpret, add meaning
Receiver
SHARED MEANING!
Internal/ External
Feedback:
response
Full transcript