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Transcript of Carthage Civilization
Beginnings of Carthage Carthage As A City Culture Religion Eiler Schiotz, Inaara Shiraz, Jay Speights, &Nikki Young The Fall of Carthage Carthage As
An Empire Social System Technology Carthage was one of the first cities in North Africa to practice ironworking. Economics Demographics And it matters because...? Impacts on Modern times The Carthaginian economy revolved mostly around trade. This was because of their position as a natural harbor in the Mediterranean Sea. The civilization was a major competitor with the Roman Empire. This became an important part of the region's technological history. Carthage also had a formidable navy. Their main ships were called quinqueremes. However, they also used other types of ships, known as triremes and quadremes. Carthage's technological achievements laid the foundations for other societies, particularly Rome, to expand and grow. Carthage was a prominent figure in the ancient world. Their close contact through trade with other societies allowed information to spread much more rapidly than it would otherwise have. The disdain found in the western world since the fall of Rome towards the idea of a society killing one of its own, regardless of whether it is for cannibalism or religious sacrifices, may stem from and/or be amplified by the incrimination of the Carthaginians in the Mediterranean and their ancestors in the Hebrew Bible. The End Carthage was located at the tip of the Tunisian peninsula, and was started as a Phoenician trade colony. When the Phoenician civilization fell Carthage thrived, thus becoming one of the strongest and most widespread empires in the Mediterranean. - The city of Carthage had two harbors, one inside of another.
- Around the harbors were watchtowers and the apartment-like residences of lower class citizens.
- Farther away from the harbors were the rich families who had estates and private land. Few social barriers determined by race or religious belief existed in ancient Carthage as it was a very diverse multiethnic city. The social barriers that did exist were determined by fiscal success.
-The highest social classes were the rich influential merchants who formed an open group that anyone could enter if they were able to obtain enough money.
- Following this group was the common merchants and skilled persons, farmers and peasants, with slaves at the bottom. Because of the economic stability that was often found in Carthage, lower social classes were willing to uphold the higher classes’ rulings.
Even though most decisions were made by the upper classes, they still met the demands of the lower class farmers, showing that they knew they would not be able to rule without the lower classes support. Women had little use in society. They were most often given the care of youths and were married to other families, in hope of gaining family ties that led to higher social ranks. A woman named Sophonisba was married to the royalty of Numidia so that Numidia would provide military support for the Carthaginians during the Second Punic War. Sophonisba was considered to be the ideal Carthaginian woman. When the army of Numidia was defeated she commited suicide to escape capture, and according to legend, to preserve her new husband’s and Carthage’s honor. Characterized by an oligarchy
- Strong walls
- Library to store records
- Unified religious rituals and place of worship Myth: Scipio Aemilianus, the Roman general who lead the Third Punic War, ploughed salt throughout Carthage's land to make sure that nothing would be able to flourish. Greco- Punic interaction:
- Interaction between Sicilian Greek city-states
- Intermarriages -> worshiped each other's Gods
- Allies: political and military Maintain and strive for economic and political enhancements
- Occurred after Carthage took the leadership position when Tyre declined GREEK INFLUENCES - The elite were educated in Greek
- Were familiarized with Greek art and architecture
- Did not copy Greek culture but manipulated into their own Punic traditions
- Relationship was inverse... Byrsa- the high ground that dominated the Carthage civilization
- Attacked first by Romans in the Third Punic War
- "Religious and administrative heart" Greek historian Appian's writings are the only source for information about the Third Punic War Romans burned arms, engines, and warships to the gods Mars and Minerva as an OFFERING and sent the Carthaginians to slave markets Greek and Latin literature:
- Greedy and cruel
- Irreligious-> terminology
- Punic faith Gods: Baal Hammon and Tanit
- Child sacrifice: savagery
- Stone slabs: give information about...
Religious rituals Traditional Phoenician art that involved humans and the human body often had Greek clothing
Greek art was also heavily influenced by Punic ways Carthage was located on the Tunisian Peninsula so trade and interaction with the oceans were the Carthaginians main form of business. Agriculture, however, was not forgotten. - Carthaginians were expert farmers who grew all manners of delicate Mediterranean crops.
- They used many forms of agricultural tools. Mago
-Specialized in agriculture
-Wrote a detailed treatise about agriculture
-His treatise was saved by the Romans when the Carthaginian library was being burned to the ground. Despite the fact that Carthage was successful in the fields of agriculture and trade, it lacked cetain resources. Carthage was at war with Rome in three different wars, called the Punics Wars. In the first Punic war, Carthage fought with Rome from 264 BC to 241 BC.
They fought over Sicily.
Rome came out
victorious. Carthage had to acquire resources such as silver, gold, and tin through conquest. Carthage was drawn to southeast Spain and
other areas to mine for these materials, which were used for the manufacturing of coins and weaponry. With Rome surrounding Carthage, they failed to block off the supply line, so Carthage was building up masses of weaponry and food, and was able to survive for years under siege instead of months. The siege started out not very organized, but they had a leadership change, and Scipio Aemilianus was put in charge of the Roman siege. Scipio rallied his troops and broke through the Carthaginian's defenses. He razed the city and killed everybody except for 50,000 survivors that they sold as slaves. Carthage has been referenced to a multitude of times:
Bertolt Brecht (Playwright & poet; 1950s; German remilitarization)
"Great Carthage drove three wars. After the first one it was still powerful. After the second one it was still inhabitable. After the third one it was no longer possible to find her."
Franz Schurmann (American sociologist & historian)
"Two thousand years ago the Roman statesman Cato the Elder kept crying out, 'Delenda est Carthago'--Carthage must be destroyed! To Cato it was clear either Rome or Carthage but not both could dominate the western Mediterranean. Rome won and Carthage was leveled to the ground.
Iraq is now Washington's Carthage." Any questions? THANK YOU
BE HAPPY, BE PROUD, REMEMBER CARTHAGE The Second Punic War was
shorter than the first one,
only lasting from 218 BC
to 201 BC. The famous
Carthaginian general Hannibal
led the Carthage troops winning battles
all throughout northern Italy, until Rome
cut off their supply chain. Hannibal was forced to rush back to Carthage only to be defeated by Rome's smaller army in the battle of Zama. Rome is credited for not only having destroyed the Carthaginian society but also inheriting vital parts of the Carthage civilization.
Roman pride and ego was able to acknowledge the important relationship they had with Greeks but never recognized the accomplishments of the Carthaginians.
Romans used Carthage as a society to prove inferior even of its previous reign and show to the world as a new super power that it would "crush the proud". The third and final Punic war was only 3
years long and was Carthage's final stand,
with Rome besieging the city. Carthage also had one of the first economic systems that was based on an official currency, rather than a barter system. This competition is among the main reasons for their many wars.