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U.S. History - Chapter 2: Europeans Establish Colonies
Transcript of U.S. History - Chapter 2: Europeans Establish Colonies
Spain's success with its American colonies encouraged other European nations to establish colonies.
The French established colonies in North America. These colonies helped form present-day Canada.
Section 3: England's Southern Colonies
After England's first attempts to establish a colony in N.A. failed they finally succeeded in 1607 in Jamestown Virginia.
By 1732, they had a colony in Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.
The New England Colonies
The English established colonies in the south (the ones we already covered) and they also established colonies in the north.
The Puritans settled much of the New England area, including Boston.
Puritans had representative government but only (male) church members could vote.
The Middle Colonies
In the 1700's the Dutch and the Swedes established their own small colonies in the middle of the east coast.
Section 1: Spain's Empire in the Americas
During the 16th century Spain conquered and colonized the lands in the Caribbean and large portions of North and South America.
This empire was 10 times larger than Spain itself!
Spain became rich with the gold and silver from the America's which motivated other European nations to join the quest for colonies in the Americas...
Spain Organizes Its American Empire
While the conquistadors were successful at conquering territory they were not very good at running the colonies.
Native Americans were treated brutally by the Spanish. They were often beaten or worked to death.
The Spanish king sent priests to the Americas as missionaries and to run the colonies.
Indians were then forced to convert to Christianity, to work, and their temples were destroyed.
Spain Organizes Its American Empire cont...
In the 1530s Spain gained control of Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean Islands, and all of South America except for Brazil.
New Spain and New Peru are established
During the 16th century about 250,000 Spanish people (mostly men) immigrated to the Americas.
The male colonists generally took Indian wives.
To maintain control and superiority the Spanish instituted a system of racial hierarchy known as the castas.
Spanish Explorers Push North
Cortes's success in conquering and plundering Mexico inspired later conquistadors.
De Soto explored the SE part of what is now the U.S. They couldn't find the riches they were looking for so they massacred Indians out of frustration!
Coronodo was told by the Indians that there was a village of gold in the midwest...he didn't find the village and came back with revenge.
Spain Colonizes Florida
Spain wanted a base to protect the valuable silver and gold mines of Mexico.
Also they want to stop other Europeans from entering the new world.
France established colonies in Florida...and they are Protestants.
Spain squashes the new settlement, slaughters the French, and then sets up their own colony. The first long lasting one in the U.S.
They also built missions and tried/forced the Indians to convert to Christianity.
Spain Colonizes New Mexico
This colony was not quite as successful...
It was isolated from the rest of Mexico.
In 1638, there were 2,000 colonists and 40,000 Pueblo Indians!
Indians did what the Spanish said, like convert to Christianity, because of the weapons the Spanish had.
Indians practiced Christianity in public but not so much in private, they mixed old and new.
The Pueblos Revolt Against Spanish
Prolonged drought, bad harvests, famine, and violence cut the Pueblo (N.A. tribe in Mexico) population from 40,000 to 17,000 in 20 years.
Pueblos had a hard time paying tributes to the Spanish.
Pope led a rebellion to return the Pueblos to their traditional ways.
They were successful in driving the Spanish out, but after in-fighting the Spanish were able to regain New Mexico.
The French Establish a Fur Trade
Early French explorers were just looking for a "Northwest Passage" or water route to Asia.
A French explorer, Jacques Cartier, explored the area around the St. Lawrence river. The King later claimed that land for France and called it...New France.
The French traded with the Indians in this area: metal weapons for furs, especially beaver furs.
The French Establish a Fur Trade cont...
Well...the Native Americans fought with each over trade and other issues. Who do you think won the battles? Those who traded with the French or those who didn't trade with the French?
High priority on being able to trade with the French!
French established a trading post/fort at Quebec, first permanent settlement in Canada.
Unlike the Spanish, the Canadian French could not afford to intimidate or enslave the Indians.
Just like the Spanish the French tried to convert the Native Americans to Christianity too.
The French needed them as hunters and trappers and their weren't as many French in the settlements.
The French traded with a few tribes and wouldn't trade with the others. In exchange those tribes were expected to help protect the French from their common foes.
Battle between French and Iroquois
Then a battle changed relations forever...
French soldiers v. Iroquois
Iroquois lined up with wooden helmets and body armor were ready to make a big show but not fight much (tradition)
French soldiers line up and shoot the Indians including chiefs and warriors.
The Iroquois no longer fought out in the open, the demanded guns when trading with Europeans, and developed hit-and-run tactics.
Life in New France
New France, just like New Spain, was strictly controlled by the powerful monarchs of the homeland.
The settlement grew very slowly...colonists didn't like the idea of clearing forests to try to plant farm ground and the climate was much colder than they were used to.
The French did establish a handful of small settlements around the Great Lakes including Detroit.
Life in France cont...
The French make some alliances (partially because of inter-marriage) and ultimately defeat the Iroquois.
The French also established a settlement in New Orleans and Louisiana.
French explorer Robert de LaSalle was hoping to find a NW passage by traveling down the Mississippi River but obviously didn't find one.
The French then formed a settlement to stop the Spanish from exploring the Mississippi.
The French also had their eye on the British and their growing colonies on the east coast...
England's First American Colonies
Why did the British go?
Patriots wanted to increase the power and fortunes of England.
Devout Protestants wanted to spread their faith.
Poor wanted a chance at a better life.
Jamestown: The Tobacco Crop Saves the Colony
By 1616, the Virginia company had spent an immense amount of money on the colonies with little return on their investment.
Then they started to grow tobacco in the colonies. Tobacco had become popular in Europe right around this time.
In 15 years they increased their tobacco production by 750% and became the largest supplier of tobacco to all of Europe.
Roanoke Colony Fails
After obtaining a charter, or written permission from the king, a group of investors formed a company to head the settlement.
The colony failed twice! Once because of sandy, infertile soil and because ships had trouble reaching the settlement to resupply it. The second time the settlement mysteriously vanished...
The Virginia Company Sends More Colonists
The English tried again under new leadership.
The Virginia company sent colonists to the Chesapeake Bay area because of good harbors, navigable rivers, and fertile land...but there were also Indians.
We will check back in with this group later.
Jamestown Overcomes Hardships
The Jamestown settlement was located in the middle of swampland.
This kept away some of the Indians but also gave colonists diseases such as malaria.
Some 10,000 people were transported to the colony from 1607 to 1622 and 80% of them died.
In 1609 a war broke out between Indians and colonists (Pocahontas was captured by colonists).
The Virginia Company granted political reforms too.
They allowed the colonists to create the House of Burgesses the first representative body in colonial America.
Male landowners over 17 years of age voted for two Burgesses to represent their settlement.
The House of B. had the power to make laws and raise taxes.
Starting in 1619 the Virginia company offered 50 acres of land to anyone who paid for passage to Virginia.
Wealthy colonists started to acquire a lot of land and the colony begins to grow.
The Virginia Company granted political reforms too.
The Effects of Expansion in Virginia
As the colonists expanded their tobacco growing outfit the Indians became more and more angry.
In 1622, an Indian chief led a surprise attack that killed nearly a third of the colonists in Virginia.
The colonists attacked back and drove the Indians away, again expanding their colonies.
Conflict continued off and on in Virginia for quite some time...
The governor of Virginia at this time was named William Berkeley. He levied heavy taxes on the farmers of Virginia and the benefits all went to the wealthiest class in Virginia.
Growing tired of this the farmers rebelled under the leadership of Nathaniel Bacon.
Bacon's rebellion first slaughtered Indians in their territory and then were able to throw the Governor out of office by force.
A month later Bacon died and Bacon's Rebellion died with it.
However, this set an important precedent: the colonists would not tolerate a government that only looked out for the wealthiest among them.
Puritans and the Church of England
Most of the New England colonists were religious dissidents who disagreed with the established church.
Puritans wanted to purify the Church of England (the only church in England)
The Church was Protestant but the Puritans believed it was still too close to Catholicism.
Puritans Arrive in Massachusetts
Before embarking on their journey across the sea the group of Puritans (about 100) made an agreement called the Mayflower Compact.
In this compact they agreed to form a government and obey its laws.
Self-government would become an important foundation of the United States.
Puritan Beliefs and Values
If they lead moral lives, prayed devoutly, and read the Bible they would prepare themselves for God's grace.
No one could claim salvation as a right or a certainty and only God could determine who was saved.
Most of the Puritans were small property holders like shopkeepers or farmers.
"God sent you unto this world as unto a workhouse, not a playhouse."
Puritans Challenge the Anglican Church
The Puritans were seen as an attack on the Church of England...and so a church on the King.
King Charles I began to persecute the Puritans.
Kicked Puritans out of church and burned their books.
Religious Dissenters Form New Colonies
Most of the Puritans immigrated to New England to realize their own ideal society NOT to accept all religions.
Massachusetts executed 4 Quakers and burned their books.
Anne Hutchinson was banished from Massachusetts because she thought the Puritans had not separated from England enough.
Roger Williams thought colonists should pay Native Americans for land, not take it...he was banished too.
Salem Witch Trials
The New England colonies punished religious dissenters and prosecuted suspected witches.
Whenever cattle or children sickened and died it was thought to be evil magic at work.
In Salem, Mass in 1692 authorities tried, convicted, and executed 19 witches! When the accusations reached members of prominent families the judges decided to stop the trials.
Conflict and Praying Towns with Native Americans
The Puritans saw the Indians as lazy savages who accepted life in the wild, instead of laboring to conquer nature.
The Pequot War was fought in the 1630s between the Puritans of New England (and their Indian allies) and the Pequot Indians.
After the war, the Puritans worked to convert the N.A.
Praying towns were set up for N.A.
In these towns the Indians were supervised by missionaries, wear English clothes, men had to stop hunting/fishing so they could farm, women stayed in the home to weave and spin cloth.
King Philip's War
Named after an Indian chief, started in 1675, massive Indian rebellion
This wasn't planned out by N.A. but many different Indian groups all rebelled against English during same time period.
With guns acquired from traders, the Indians devastated English towns.
After running out of food and ammunition the Indians were driven off of their land, many fled to French Canada.
They became allies with the French and would later help the French in a War with the colonists...
In 1700, there were 92,000 colonists and 9,000 Indians.
Push and Pull Factors
A push factor motivates people to leave their home countries.
A pull factor is something that attracts people to a new location.
Netherlands economy was booming, they had a high standard of living, and less religious persecution.
England: stagnant, slow-moving, economy, religious persecution, and other factors.
England has a lot more push factors (reasons people want to leave) and the Netherlands did not have as many push factors.
Sought an "Inner Light" to understand the Bible
Did not have clergy
Considered women spiritually equal to men
Men and women held leadership positions in the church.
Pacifists, refused to bear arms.
Very tolerant of other faiths
The Dutch Establish New Netherland
The Dutch established a colony right around New York.
They made virtually no attempt to convert the Indians to Christianity.
They were VERY tolerant of other religions, even allowing Jews into their colonies (rare for this time).
However, their colonies failed to grow...why?
New Netherlands is taken over
The New Netherlands was too thinly populated and they were not able to hold the English off when they attacked the Dutch.
The English then renamed New Netherlands, New York after the Duke of York who became the "owner" of the colony.
William Penn Founds Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania began as a debt paid to William Penn by King Charles II of England.
Penn was a Quaker and a wealthy gentlemen which was unusually for a Quaker.
Most Quaker's were common folk, poor or middle-class people. They didn't trust the rich and the rich didn't trust them.
The King granted Penn the land west of the Delaware River
Penn brought 2,000 colonists and made his capitol Philadelphia, which means the "City of Brotherly Love"
Penn set up a society and government that was VERY tolerant of other religions.
Penn worked with Native Americans, paid fair prices for their lands, and maintained good relations with them.
The Constitution of Pennsylvania was very forward thinking for his time.
Guaranteed a lot of liberties and freedoms, put limits on government.
Diversity in the Middle Colonies
In Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, and Delaware there was a TREMENDOUS amount of diversity!
There were Dutch, Swedes, Finns, French Protestants, Germans, Norwegians, Scots, and English.
Religions in middle colonies included Quakers, Baptists, Anglicans, Presbyterians, Lutherans, Dutch Reformed, German Reformed, and Jews!
This was the only place on Earth where this much diversity existed! And they all got along!