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VCE Psychology Unit 1 - History of Psychology
Transcript of VCE Psychology Unit 1 - History of Psychology
The History of Psychology
Socrates and Plato
Were the first to recognize that mind and body are separate things and that the brain was the mechanism for thought. They also claimed that knowledge is innate.
Although he was Plato's student he disagreed with his idea of knowledge. Aristotle thought knowledge comes from experience.
He also thought mind and body were separate.
He claimed that animal spirits in brain fluid are what travel through your nerves to communicate brain and body.
So how do they communicate??
"Essay Concerning Human Understanding"
He claimed the mind is a "Tabula Rasa". Therefore knowledge comes from experience. This is why science should observe and experiment
Sigmund Freud published 'Interpretation of Dreams' marking the beginning of Psychoanalytic Thought.
He was the first to study psychology scientifically. Wilhelm Wundt opened first experimental laboratory in psychology at the University of Leipzig, Germany. He created a machine to measure the time lapse between a person hearing a sound and clicking a telegraphic key. He said he was measuring the speed of the "atoms of the mind".
Wanted to study the structural elements of the mind. He did this through self-reflective introspection. This way of studying did not work out because it required highly intelligent people with good vocabulary.
He described psychology as the study of mental life.
"Principles of Psychology"
He studied the functions of thoughts and feelings which help us adapt. He was interested in how and why our thoughts lead us to behave the way we do.
He believed observations through introspection and experimentation were also a useful form of research
G. Stanley Hall
Founds the American Psychological Association (APA) and serves as its first president.
Edward L. Thorndike
Publishes findings on cats in puzzle boxes
Published the first studies on Classical Conditioning.
John B. Watson
Published 'Psychology as a Behaviorist Views It' marking the beginnings of Behavioral Psychology. In contrast to psychoanalysis, behaviorism focuses on observable and measurable behavior. Behaviourism involves understanding and explaining how behaviour is learned and moulded by experience
and Rosalie Rayner published the Little Albert experiments, demonstrating that fear could be classically conditioned.
Published 'The Moral Judgment of Children' beginning his popularity as the leading theorist in cognitive development.
"The Behavior of Organisims"
Publishes his studies on conformity. He proves the importance of social influence on decisions
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) was published by The American Psychiatric Association marking the beginning of modern mental illness classification.
Publishes Motivation and Personality.
He helped to found Humanistic
Published the Behavioral Study of Obedience. Where he showed the influence of authority over the individual.
Principles of Behavior Modification
Garcia and Koelling
Did studies on aversion using classical conditioning.
Phineas Gage suffered brain damage when an iron pole pierces his brain. His personality was changed but his intellect remained intact suggesting that an area of the brain plays a role in personality.
Published the On the Origin of Species, detailing his view of evolution and expanding on the theory of 'Survival of the fittest.'
Developed the 'Law of Effect,' arguing that "a stimulus-response chain is strengthened if the outcome of that chain is positive."
Emphasizes the role of
the unconscious mind
early childhood experiences
Psychoanalysis is therapist-centered, meaning the therapist has all the answers, not the patient. Used case studies, self analysis and personal reflections in his patients and observations of his family to inform his research.
Our personality is a conflict between our unconscious Id and our superego (our moral sense) and our ego (our sense of reality).
Published first article on animal intelligence leading to the theory of Operant Conditioning.
Psychoanalysis seemed very unscientific. Behaviorists will bring science back into psychology, even if they overdo it a little.
Behaviorism is NOT interested in the unconscious mind since it cannot be observed in a laboratory.
Classical conditioning is associative learning. He trained a dog to drool to a bell.
The work draws widespread attention to behaviorism and inspires laboratory research on conditioning. Operant conditioning (aka shaping) is learning through reinforcements (rewards) and punishments.
He also created the skinner box which was similar to Thorndike's but with the efficiency of never letting the animal out.
John B. Watson
Departed from Freudian views and developed his own theories citing Freud's inability to acknowledge religion and spirituality. His new school of thought became known as Analytical Psychology.
Carl G. Jung
The daughter of Sigmund Freud, published her first book, The Psychoanalytic Treatment of Children, expanding her father's ideas in the treatment of children.
Published 'Counseling and Psychotherapy' suggesting that respect and a non-judgmental approach to therapy is the foundation for effective treatment of mental health issues.
Published her feministic views of psychoanalytic theory, marking the beginning of feminism.
Published 'Childhood and Society,' where he expands Freud's Theory to include social aspects of personality development across the lifespan.
introduced the idea of Observational Learning on the development of personality.
Inspired by work in mathematics and other disciplines, psychologists begin to focus on cognitive states and processes. George A. Miller's 1956 article "The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two" on information processing is an early application of the cognitive approach.
Introduced his theory of multiple intelligence, arguing that intelligence is something to be used to improve lives not to measure and quantify human beings.
to explain human behavior and to treat people suffering from mental illnesses. Believed unconscious contained instinctive sexual and aggressive needs and instinct needs are triggers of behaviour (which can often be socially unacceptable) This can lead to (unconscious) conflict between what we want and what is acceptable.
Carl Rogers revolutionized talk therapy. His therapy is client-centered, where the client has all the answers instead of the therapist. Therapists treat the client with unconditional positive regard (no judgments).
Focuses on memory, intelligence, perception, thought processes, problem solving, language and learning
It is the study of the mind.
Concerned with how we
Humanism came about in the 1960s in reaction to psychoanalysis and behaviorism. Humanistic psychology was instead focused on each individual’s potential and stressed the importance of growth and self-actualization. The fundamental belief of humanistic psychology was that people are innately good.We are not rats in a cage! We are not id-driven animals! We are humans with free will!
Psychology and later developed his
famous Hierarchy of Needs.
Is focused on how a person’s feelings, thoughts and behaviors are influenced by the real, imagined or implied presence of others.
How genes combine with the environment and influence individual differences.
The first drug to treat depression is authorized by the FDA
He was interested in the study of human consciousness. He tried to do this by breaking it into smaller parts: Thoughts, feelings, sights and sounds. A structuralist focused on the structure of consciousness - the parts that make it up.
Wundt took an experimental approach and used introspection. He defined psychology as the study of consciousness.
Psychoanalysis focuses on the role of unconscious conflicts and motivations in understanding and explaining behaviour and mental processes
He believed that consciousness and the unconscious are impossible to directly observe. We tend to repeat behaviours that we find rewarding.
In the 1950s, Humanism focuses on the uniqueness of each individual person and the positive qualities and potential of all humans to fulfill their lives.This was based on the assumption that all people are born good. There was an emphasis on free will. His person centred theory of personality (1960s): had a need to focus on whole person though this lacked scientific research and what was completed were case studies.
Brain versus heart debate
Ancient Egyptians removed most organs (including the brain with a hook through the nose) but the heart was usually left behind. It was thought to be responsible for reason, intelligence and personality.
Plato believed the brain was boss
Aristotle thought reasoning and thinking took place in the heart, and the brain filtered the forces of life that came from heaven and into the body. The 'mind' for him was not physical and acted separately. This is called a dualistic approach.
The view that the mind is the same thing as the brain is known as monoism.
This discussion is known as the mind-body problem