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Mood Disorders

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miranda r

on 13 October 2013

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Transcript of Mood Disorders

Mood Disorders
Emma Blondin & Miranda Ray - Seasonal Affective Disorder
Alethia Everett & Morgane Perez-Huet - Bipolar Disorder Brandon Jacobs & Julie Graboski- Depression

Depressi n
Seasonal Affective
Dis rder

Seasonal Affective Disorder is typically recurrent winter depression, but can occur in other seasons. It is often associated with Bipolar Disorder & Depression.
Bipolar
Bipolar disorder (also known as manic depression) is a treatable illness marked by extreme changes in mood, thought, energy and behavior.
Symptoms:
depression
anxiety
mood changes
sleep problems
fatigue
feeling unable to carry out daily routine
social problems (not wanting to be around other people)
being irritable
overeating and craving starchy foods
feelings of guilt and hopelessness
Two types of Bipolar Disorder
It is a mood disorder thought to be caused by chemical imbalances in the brain that can result in extreme swings in mood—from manic highs to depressive lows.
Also known as:
SAD
Winter Blues
Summer Blues
Springtime Blues
Fall Blues

• SAD has been attributed to the seasonal light variation
•also linked to SAD is excess production of melatonin (a sleep aiding hormone) which usually occurs in the winter when there are shorter daylight hours.
•Other possible causes include lack of serotonin and melanopsin.
Causes
Bipolar I disorder
A more severe form of the illness.
mixed episode symptoms of both mania
and depression happening everyday at least once a week and one or more major depression episodes.
DSM IV TR definition:
Bipolar II disorder
Treatments for Bipolar Disorder
A less severe form of the illness.
The elevated moods are less intense, also know as hypomanic episodes or hypomania.
2. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). This process helps those with bipolar disorders unlearn unhealthy thinking processes. This can be challenging because once they enter a maniac phase it can be hard to convince them to continue this therapy.
1. Medication is the most common treatment that slowly returns the balance of neurotransmitters in the brain
Treatments
3. Psychoeducation teaches people with bipolar disorder about the illness and its treatment. This treatment helps people recognize signs of relapse so they can seek treatment early, before a full-blown episode occurs.
For mild cases, spending time outside and arranging offices and homes to receive more sunlight.

Phototherapy / bright light therapy- when a person sits in front of a fluorescent light up to four hours a day to restrain the brain's production of melatonin (a sleep aiding hormone).

For cases in which phototherapy is not effective antidepressant drugs may be effective in eliminating or reducing symptoms.
The percentages range on location:
1.9% in Florida
9.7 % in New Hampshire
20% of those diagnosed with SAD are also diagnosed with Bi Polar
20% of Irish have SAD
Seasonal Affective Disorder Statistics
Symptoms
switching suddenly from one idea to the next
Rapid and loud speech
increased energy; hyperactivity
decreased need for sleep
Symptoms for Bipolar Disorder 1

Bipolar I disorder has had at least one manic episode in his or her life. Most people with bipolar I disorder also suffer from episodes of
depression. Many people with Bipolar I disorder can live normal lives
Work Cited
People with Major Depressive Disorder "have experienced at least one Major Depressive Episode, but no Manic, Hypomanic, or Mixed Episodes" (DSM IV TR)
(2012). seasonal affective disorder. Retrieved from
http://behavenet.com/seasonal-affective-disorder
(2011). Treatments of Parkinson's Disease. Retrieved from http://viartis.net
/parkinsons.disease/treatments.htm
(2012). Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). Retrieved from http://www.mental
healthamerica.net/go/sad
Treatments
1. The most common use is by taking medications. These medications restore the normal balance of neurotransmitters in the brain
2. Psychotherapy (Talk Therapy) for Bipolar Disorder

Psychotherapy (also called talk therapy) can make it easier for patients and to better cope with disturbing thoughts, feelings, and behaviors associated with bipolar disorder. Talk therapy focuses on several important aspects of bipolar disorder management, including
-Recognition of and treatment for recurrent mood episodes
-Management of stress, interpersonal/family issues, and regularity of daily activities
-Development of problem-solving skills
Bipolar

Bipolar I Disorder Symptoms, Treatments, Causes, and More. (n.d.). WebMD - Better information. Better health. Retrieved October 7, 2012, Website

About Bipolar Disorder - Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance. (n.d.). Depression & Bipolar Support Alliance - Depression and Bipolar Support
Alliance. Retrieved from http://www.dbsalliance.org/site/PageServer?pagename=education_bipolar&gclid=CNmS573w57ICFQTznAodcQoA2Q

NIMH · How is bipolar disorder treated? (n.d.). NIMH · Home. Retrieved from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/bipolar-disorder/how-is-
bipolar-disorder-treated.shtmlWebsite
What is a Major Depressive Episode?
According to the DSM IV-TR, a Major Depressive Episode occurs when “an individual experiences a discrete episode of persistent and pervasive emotional depression.”
Depressed Mood
Loss of interest in activities
Significant weight loss when not dieting
Insomnia or hypersomnia
Suicidal thoughts or plans
Causes
Like many mental disorders, depression is often attributed to a chemical imbalance in the brain, but it is difficult to confirm whether this is true.

Depression is often triggered by a traumatic experience, a painful medical condition, or prolonged isolation.
What's happening inside the brain?
It has been theorized since the 1960s that people with the cause of Depression is an imbalance in levels of serotonin
.
Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that relays information relating to mood, sex, appetite, and sleep, across the brain
.
Medications like Prozac increase the level of serotonin in the body.
However, recent studies have shown that serotonin may not be the answer.
Treatments
Antidepressant medications
Therapy
Diet- Tryptophan, omega-3, St. John's Wort
Exercise
Electroconvulsive Therapy
Vagus Nerve Stimulation
Trancranial Magnetic Stimulation
Bright Light Therapy
Suicide
Suicide is the 11th leading cause of death among adults, and 3rd among people 15 to 24 years old.
Women are two to three times more likely to attempt suicide, but men are four times more likely to commit suicide.
Women are 70% more likely to have a depressive disorder than men.
6.7% of all adults have at least a 12-month prevalence of depression.
(2011). Psychotherapy for Depression. Retrieved from
http://www.jfcsmonmouth.org/Default.aspx?pageId=930344
(2011). child abuse should be prevented EVERY month. Retrieved from
http://looneytunes09.wordpress.com/2011/03/31/child-abuse-should-be-prevented-every-month/
(2007). Drug Death, Thy Name is Hershey's.
Retrieved from http://dbkp.wordpress.com/2007/12/01/drug-death-thy-name-is-hersheys/
(2006). File:Saint john wart flowers.jpg. Retrieved from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Saint_johns_wart_flowers.jpg
Miller, Brian. (2008). What Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) feels like.
Retrieved from http://www.health.com/health/condition-article/0,,20188668,00.html
(2012). National Suicide Rate Map. Retrieved from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/statistics/4NAT_MAP.shtml
Seasonal Affective Disorder
Depression

Bouchez, Colette. (2011). Seratonin: 9 Questions and Answers. Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/depression/features/serotonin
(2012). Depression. Retrieved from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/statistics/pdf/NCS-R_data-Major_Depressive_Disorder.pdf
n.d. Major Depressive Disorder. Retrieved from http://behavenet.com/major-depressive-disorder
n.d. Major Depressive Episode. Retrieved from http://behavenet.com/major-depressive-episode
(2012). Major Depressive Disorder. Retrieved from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/statistics/pdf/NCS-R_data-Major_Depressive_Disorder.pdf
n.d. National Suicide Rate Map. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/statistics/4NAT_MAP.shtml
Statistics
Bipolar disorder affects approximately 5.7 million adult Americans, or about 2.6% of the U.S. population at age 18 and older every year.

Bipolar disorder occurs in equal amounts between men and women but women with the disorder tend to have more depressive and fewer manic episodes than men do because they have a better capacity of coping with it.
(Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 58, 1995 [Suppl.15])

Women tend to have Bipolar Disorder II which is a lesser form of the disorder.

Bipolar symptoms include suicidal thoughts with between 10 to15 percent of people with the disorder successfully ending their own lives

But if treated, the success rate is 70 to 85%

When one parent has bipolar disorder, the risk to each child is l5 – 30%, indicating that it may be a heritable gene.
1. Do your reactions to the weather actively inhibit your daily life?

2. Are you unhappy so much that you cannot do things you want to?

3. Do you sleep longer in the winter and still have trouble getting up in the morning?

4. Has anybody close to you commented on your change in behavior?

5. Do you feel depressed only in autumn and winter (as opposed to simply grumpy or out of sorts)?

6. Do you have stomach/digestion problems during this time?

7. Do you have more colds than usual in Autumn and Winter?

8. Do you feel more sluggish and weary during this period?
Do you have Seasonal Affective Disorder?
Bipolar II Disorder Symptoms-http://www.webmd.com/bipolar-disorder/guide/bipolar-2-disorder
(2011) Seasonal Affective Disorder. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seasonal_affective_disorder
Causes
The cause of bipolar disorder is not entirely known. Genetic, neurochemical and environmental factors probably contribute to the many levels that play a role in the trigger and progression of bipolar disorder. The current thinking is that this is a biological disorder that occurs in a specific part of the brain and is due to a malfunction of the neurotransmitters. As a biological disorder, it may lie dormant and be activated randomly or it may be triggered by stressors in life.
According to the DSM IV-TR, a Major Depressive Episode occurs when “an individual experiences a discrete episode of persistent and pervasive emotional depression.”
Dysthymic Disorder is characterized by "emotional depression that persists for years, usually with no more than moderate intensity.” (DSM IV-TR)
Symptoms
Bipolar II causes Image- http://www.iancommunity.org/cs/ian_research_reports/ian_research_report_oct_2008
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