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Transcript of Evaluation Prezi
My Media Studies
Evaluation In what ways does your media
product use, develop or
challenge forms and conventions
of real media products?
Thrillers mostly take place in ordinary suburbs/cities which is the convention that I have used. Although sometimes in other media products, they have taken place wholly or partly in exotic settings such as foreign cities, deserts, polar regions, or the high seas, I have not used any of these settings due to limitations as well as the fact that I think having a familar location to the viewers helps to create a connection between the audience and the film. by using the concept of audience fimiliarity. However real films that use exotic locations challenges the conventions of thrillers which means that I have used a conventional location and haven't challenged or developed the conventions of real media products. Location This is the location of the park that I have filmed in, as you can see there are only a few number of houses surrounding the park and is quite an 'ordinary' setting. The simplicity of the location makes Predator seem almost natural in its location. And this is the same location - but at night. This is the path that leads to the park
which is also an 'ordinary' location. The location of The Signalman The location of Psycho Both of these locations are 'ordinary' and are in rural locations which are the most frequent locations used in thrillers. Light and Shadow A convention frequently used is the use and effect of shadows and lighting within a thriller in real media products. Dark lighting and bright lighting are used conventionally to create different effects. Darkness is a semiotic of dispair, hatred and evil which when used in films to convey these emotions to the audience and grip them. Whereas brightness and the colour white is a semiotic of hope and happiness. This is why conventionally bright light isn't used when the intention is to create a sense of fear and danger. In Predator I have used half shadows across the psychopaths face as is used in The Signalman and Psycho. In both of these films the protagonist(The Signalman) and the antagonist(Psycho) use half shadows to create the effect of danger as these characters are shown to have a dark influence on their character, as is what my psychopath has. You can see this example where the psychopath is humming where there is a clear half shadow across her face. This is a conventional effect that I have used which doesn't challenge the forms of conventions of real media products, but instead uses them for their benefits and effectiveness as it has a very strong effect on the audience. This is a screen grab of Predator's psychopath with Norman Bates the antagonist from Psycho, as you can see I have used this half shadow technique to create contradicting ideas and representations of good and evil across the psychopaths face. This is a conventional effect. Similiarly in The Signalman, a half shadow is used to create a similar effect. Sound I have used some conventional sound to heighten suspense and to create fear, it is used while the psychopath is talking about the victim: "I chased him". During these suspense building parts I have used sound that gradually increases as the audience gains fear synchronously. As in Psycho and Jaws which both use this technique - when mariam is in danger, when jaws is about to attack - I have also used this. This makes my use of sound conventional and uses the forms of real media products. Another sound that I have used is the victim screaming which is a very stereotypical attribute as it is used to heighten the audiences fear and alert them to the danger that a victim is in.I have also used some digetic sound to also create a sense of realism within my thriller, such as cars driving past and the sounds of birds in the background. This is conventional of a thriller and is used to comfort the audience before later frightening them which has a bigger effect than if a thriller was to start off with frightening scenes. And this is again an effect I have used to create a bigger appeal to Predator. In Life On Mars there is a switch of digetic and non-digetic sound as I have previously commented about in another post, I have used this technique when hearing the sounds of the guitar with no visual source to then having a different shot of the stereo. However although my use of sound is conventional, my music isn't, which creates a strong contrast. The instrumental music in Predator is overlapped with the sounds/music of the conventional frightening pieces. This strong contrast creates an eriee effect and is challenging towards other media products because it isn't conventional.
As you can see, this is what I have created using the technique of switching non-digetic to digetic sound/music. And this is the idea that I have developed and used in Predator that is in Life On Mars This is a clip of a montage created by a user on youtube, it shows the repetitive theme music of Jaws and how this is a similar technique to what I have used. There is also red lighting used while the victim is being attacked, this wasn't intentional but I feel that it adds to the sense of danger, it isn't an added effect, it is actually the real lighting. The colour red is a semiotic of danger and fear which is why this lighting works extremely well within my thriller as it doesn't have an unrealistic effect because it is clear that it is the natural lighting. This isn't a conventional quality of a thriller, and therefore this is challenging towards the conventions of real media products.
A thriller is a film that provides thrills and keeps the audience cliff-hanging at the "edge of their seats" as the plot builds towards a climax. The tension usually arises when the character(s) is placed in a menacing situation, a mystery, or a trap from which escaping seems impossible. I have used a commonplace technique which is used in most thrillers, cliff hangers. Predator is left on a cliff hanger at the end of the opening title sequence as the audience is unaware of whom the psychopath is next going to target and murder, and although this isn’t conventionally at the end of the film, it still helps to draw the audience in for when the problem is resolved later on. Cliffhangers Conventionally life is threatened within a thriller, usually because the principal character is unsuspectingly or unknowingly involved in a dangerous or potentially deadly situation. I haven’t used this convention as the main character is the antagonist rather than being the victim or a potential hero’s perspective. However there is a strong theme of death and murder which is extremely conventional, and therefore Predator uses conventional themes. Theme of death My media product, Predator, has a mixture of attributes that is challenging towards the forms of real media products but also has conventional properties, although overall I think that Predator is more so challenging towards these conventions than not.
How does your media product represent
particular social groups?
A common social representation is challenged in predator, typical representations of murderers and evil characters are stereotypical males, and this idea is defied within Predator as the evil character within it is a female teenager. Whereas women are primarily portrayed as delicate, innocent and weaker than men by other media products, this is also challenged by Predator as the main character is able to kill a taller male character who is the primary victim shown in my opening sequence.
As is in Dark water, an unsespecting non-stereotypical evil character is used, a little girl. I have used this unconvetional idea as my antagonist/protagonist is a teenage girl. The teenage generation is represented, as this is the only age group within the opening title sequence. The psychopath is portrayed as violent and without moral discipline which plays on the stereotypical teenager but is exaggerated to make her into a psychopath. However the psychopath is only one person, and in my opinion represents people with psychological problems rather than the teenage community. The psychopaths victims are teenagers whom are shown to be innocent just by the fact that they were murdered which is the main representation of the other characters in my thriller.
The main characters and almost all of the victims are white and British with just one other ethnicity shown on the psychopath’s wall. This is a lack of representation of different social groups however if I was making a feature length film I would include a wider variety of ethnic and racial groups.
The working class social group are represented within my thriller which is shown by the establishing shots as the houses are shown to be from an estate and all the houses look similar/the same. There is the reinforcement from other social representations in other media products which gives the idea that murders regularly occur on estates as it plays on the stereotypical as does Predator.
In conclusion a variety of different social groups are represented within Predator through a variety of stereotypes that are challenged and are played on in order to gain the audiences attention to its uniqueness and its ideas, however in comparison to other media products there is lack of representation of other social groups although the opening title sequence is only 2 minutes long and I’m sure that if Predator was to continue a wider amount of social groups would have been used.
Women playing the
evil character Teenagers Class Ethnicity Conclusion Teenagers are mainly portrayed as Immature, stupid, greedy, lazy, selfish, unfit, obese, violent, callous, gullible, unreliable, careless and self-entitled. And there is evidence for this but not as much to the extremity that the Psychopath is violent and aggressive. Which shows that I have played on stereotypical representations but I have exaggerated them for effect. Here you can see the psychopath attacking her victim showing a stereotypical aggressive nature This is a stereotypical working class area As you can see I have played on the stereotypical to a good extent, although finding a location similar to this wasn't available, so I used an ordinary estate rather than the extreme working class representative area. This uses the conventions of real media products as it uses common themes of a working class area. This is a stereotypical woman, innocent and beautiful, someone who could never be capable of murder. I have not used this stereotypical representation as I feel that society has changed and that the medias representation should also. These are not the stereotypical women portrayed in the media, they are the rare exception. They are uncaring, harsh, brutal and murderous, much like the stereotypical attributes of a male character. Stereotypically, male characters are shown as brutal, strong and murderous, as is shown here by these characters. However in Predator I decided against this stereotypical as in many cases this isn't true. Not all men are like this and can often be the victims in violent situations. There is predominant representation of white british people, without the needed representation of other ethnicities. However as this is only the opening title sequence it is acceptable not to include other ethnicities as long as if this movie was to contuinue that more ethnic characters would be introduced In Predator there is a strong potrayal of violence and murder as is the norm in most conventional thrillers. However there is a key difference, in Predator as there is no gore whereas conventionally gore has become the 'norm'. I chose to not include gore as society has become used to it. The hypodermic syringe theory is what I have kept in mind when I was choosing whether or not to include gore. I also believe that leaving things to the audiences imagination can have a much stronger effect. The Psychopath's dress sense The psychopaths clothing is unusual and colourful which has an ominous effect on the audience as the lack of normality creates a sense of fear in the audience. I used bright make-up and smudged it so that it would look more wild and frightening. Also I have deliberately given the psychopath wild and messy hair so that she looks even more unnormal and overall creates a shockingly wild and dangerous look. However as the killer is dressed differently this could give the audience clues or signifiers (semiotics) that there is something different about her which would make her stand out in ordinary society and to avoid drawing attention she kills at her victims at night. Her dress sense is conventional of ''bad guys' in film. There are many examples where a psychotic murderer dressers in an unsual way to portray the characters abnormality within his/her personality. This is from the final scene of Casino Royale, which is left on a cliff hanger for the next film. i have used this effect of cliffhangers by using framing of the character at the end and using a considerable amount of time to elongate it's effect. As you can see from these pictures, psychopaths being dressed up is quite common. I have especially recieved my inspiration from Psycho, unusual clothing certainly gives a sense of abnormality and creates fear within the audience. Fast paced In Predator I have used a fast paced opening sequence like in Oceans 12 and 24. This use of pace is 'adrenaline pumping' which allows the audience to get into the film quickly without any slow build-ups which are effective but I felt that within Predator a begining part that is exciting would grip the audience more, but this doesn't necessarily mean that it would be fast paced later in the film. It is conventional to have almost a preview of what the film will be like in thrillers, for example in 'Wrong Turn' there is a fast paced opening, but then slows down when the main characters are introduced, which would have been my intention if Predator was to continue. This clip from wrong turn shows how the opening title sequence in thrillers are usually fast paced. Use of Camera shots/angles
and composition I have used a various number of camera shots/angles/composition to create a strong effect on the audience.
I have used close ups to highlight the psychopaths expression as a means of emphasising her insanity and to create fear within the audience. The closeness created by the close up draws the audiences attention to the psychopath and has a stronger effect as the audience becomes much more involved in the film. for example whilst the psychopath is humming there is a complete sense of invasion of personal space and makes the audience feel like she is looking at them.
I have used long shots with a high angle whilst the victim is being attacked, this creates a sense of distance between the audience and the psychopath and victim, the audience cannot see clearly what is happening and has a strong effect as the audience's imaginations are used instead. The unknown can be more frightening. This idea of leaving the audience to imagine what has happened is decreasing within real media products as frequently gore is used and therefore is explicit but as the public have become used to this explicity it has lost it's effect, therefore I chose to use unconventional shots of tthe murder.
Perception shots from the Victim and the Psychopath help to relate the audience to the film in a more direct way. I have used these shots - whilst the psychopath is chasing the victim, and when the victim is looking for the psychopath - because it creates more believable and stronger effect than say, having a long shot whilst they are running as the audience would be less involved and wouldn't be as gripped. It is becoming more and more conventional to use perception shots as films such as cloverfield are low buidget films and by using this shot they were able to create a convincing film and rise to fame, so to speak.
My use of establishing shots is very conventional as they are used in almost every film What kind of media institution might distribute your media product and why?
Who would be the audience for your media product? How did you attract/address your audience?
What have you learnt about the technologies from the process of constructing this product?
Looking back at your preliminary task, what do you feel you have learnt in the progression from it to the full product?
DvDs Cinema Internet newspaper My media product would very likely be
distributed onto DvD/BluRay. This is becuase DvD players are widely distributed and are all across the world in many different countries. They are reasonably cheap to buy and everyone can access them in stores and through other forms of retail such as on a stores website, and even Ebay. By releasing my media product on DvD many people could gain access to the product. When distributing my media product
the obvious choice would be the cinema. However as there are many blockbuster films that dominate the cinema in many cinemas I would have to choose to distribute it in a cinema that shows more indie and lower budget films such as Cineworld. However distributing my media project at cinemas would be vastly more expensive than via the internet
Cinema chains such as Vue and Odeon are the main cinemas across britain which show blockbuster films. More and more frequently there have been adverts from certain newspapers offering DVDs if you buy their newspaper, such as the Mail On Sunday. By making agreements with newspapers such as this I could distribute my media product to a different audience group, typically the older generations who read newspapers. It is a good way of advertising my media product as these offers are often shown on television. The internet is the easiest way of distributing products of all kinds. Films, Music and Pictures are the easiest of files to distribute as they can all be downloaded and saved onto your computer without having to order an actual copy of the DVD, although some would prefer this. My media product would be available on a wide range of websites such as on:
www.zavvi.co.uk The internet can be accessed all across the world, and it is easy for anyone to download films. Distribuiting my media product via the internet would be the cheapest and the most widely available form of distribution. In conclusion my media product would be available in many forms of media institutions as many poeple therefore would be able to access it and would give the public a good choice as to what form they would want the project in, whether it be dvd, watching it on the cinema, downloading it from the internet, or getting it in the post. It would be their choice.
My target audience are teenagers/young people aged between 18-25, although this wasn’t my original target audience I have had to make changes as the content within predator is too sadistic to have made the 15 classification allowance despite the fact that every other criteria was met for a 15 classification film.
Exclusive media group - film distribution I have done some research, and I have decided that exclusive media group would distribute my media product. Exclusive Media Group is a vertically-integrated film development, production, distribution, sales and marketing business. Exclusive comprises production labels Hammer Films, Spitfire Pictures and Exclusive Films, sales & marketing arm Exclusive Films International and US distributor Newmarket Films. Exclusive also has a library of over 550 titles. This company is more than capable of distributing films and also has an established place among film distribution companies.
Recently the Exclusive Media Group has helped distribute films such as: The Woman In Black and Let Me In which are highly regarded films that have/will make the cinema and have a success.
As my project is a thriller and the Exclusive Media Group distribute these types of films, such as productions from Hammer, my project would fit alongside these films and have a good chance of being distributed. Language
There may be frequent use of strong language (for example, ‘fuck’). The strongest terms (for example, ‘cunt’) may be acceptable if justified by the context. Aggressive or repeated use of the strongest language is unlikely to be acceptable.
I haven't used strong language within my thriller so it fits the criteria
Nudity may be allowed in a sexual context but without strong detail. There are no constraints on nudity in a non-sexual or educational context.
There is no nudity within my thriller so therefore my thriller fits this criterion
Sexual activity may be portrayed without strong detail. There may be strong verbal references to sexual behaviour, but the strongest references are unlikely to be acceptable unless justified by context. Works whose primary purpose is sexual arousal or stimulation are unlikely to be acceptable.
There are no sexual scenes within my thriller so therefore my thriller fits this criterion.
No theme is prohibited, provided the treatment is appropriate for 15 year olds.
Violence may be strong but should not dwell on the infliction of pain or injury. The strongest gory images are unlikely to be acceptable. Strong sadistic or sexualised violence is also unlikely to be acceptable. There may be detailed verbal references to sexual violence but any portrayal of sexual violence must be discreet and have a strong contextual justification.
My thriller does contain sadistic violence despite that it is moderate. Therefore I have had to change the classification of my thriller to an 18 Discrimination
The work as a whole must not endorse discriminatory language or behaviour.
I have made no reference of discriminatory language or behaviour within my film
Drug taking may be shown but the film as a whole must not promote or encourage drug misuse. The misuse of easily accessible and highly dangerous substances (for example, aerosols or solvents) is unlikely to be acceptable.
I haven't used drugs in my thriller so this isn't applicable.
Strong threat and menace are permitted unless sadistic or sexualised.
Strong menace is used and is sadistic which is making me consider that my thriller should be an 18 as the psychopath enjoys killing her victims
Dangerous behaviour (for example, hanging, suicide and self-harming) should not dwell on detail which could be copied. Easily accessible weapons should not be glamorised.
I haven't used detail that could be copied as whilst the psychopath is strangling the victim it wouldn't be entirely clear because it is at night, I also haven't glamorised weapons which makes my thriller fit this criteria Reasons why my product almost
made the 15 classification age Reasons why my product almost
made the 15 classification age Why teenagers are my
target audience My target audience are teenagers/young people aged between 18-25. Teenagers/young people are my target audience because I feel that they are the main social group that are addressed within my thriller as these are the only age group portrayed within Predator. This allows the teenage target audience to make connections with the characters as people who are in the same generation as you tend to be more understanding of your opinions and views on life. A teenage audience would be the most likely of social groups that would relate to Predator on some level, despite not being in a dangerous situation. And therefore would simpathise with the victim more so than another social group would. And in turn, Predator would have the biggest affect on this audience.
Evasion Everyone needs a little break from everyday life from
time to time. And film, is a great way to do that. It lets you observe an alternate reality of danger, excitement and difference from the real world, without putting yourself in any actual danger but you can still enjoy the thrill and excitement that danger and fear brings.
Teenagers/Young people today are pressured with exams, work, and the pressures of society. So especially to teenagers/young people,watching films can be considered a great means of escapism. This is a table that I created
as a questioiniare so that I could address my audience and find out what they wanted to see in a thriller. And i have summarised that:
People like films that are cleverly written - I have tried to make it as good as I could.
Generally, there are mixed views, but most people like realism, but on a different level to what we know. In Predator there is a sense of realism as there is no over-the-top gore and uses perception shots that create a more natural and realistic effect.
Thrillers generally tend to fail when they become less realistic for most people - I tried to make my thriller realistic by using perception shots but I still kept the exciting parts with the psychopath as it is gripping
An audience won't always get what they like, as people have different views on what is scary. For a thriller to work the writers would have to go out of there way, potentially ruining a story. So it's best to write with a specific target audience in mind - Therefore I aimed my target audience at teenagers
Most people tend not to like gore - Therefore I didn't use it. I conducted a poll on facebook as I know that many teenagers/young people use it, and I found out a few things that I later addressed in Predator Use of effects Genre Location The use of effects within Predator helps to draw in a younger audience as this is what appeals to them. I used a number of effects including: ghosting and fading. Not to mention the sound effects aswell. They are obvious effects, especially the sound, that is used commonly used in thrillers as it adds to the effect and the excitement of the moment, for example, I have used this technique where whilst looking at the victim the sound increases to a higher pitch, and when it switches back the sound increases even more, right up to the point where the Psychopath attacks the victim. I have also used a reverse clang at the cliffhanger, at the end. This use of sound builds tension and heightens suspense. And therefore helps to attract a teenage audience as special effects is what appeals to their generation. The location of Predator is set in an ordinary suburb in the UK. This would attract the teenage population as teenagers haven't established theirselves in the working world yet and therefore cannot have houses of their own or any other major luxuries. Therefore by setting Predator in an estate, it creates a connection between the viewer and the film.
Also if the audience knew that Predator was set in Norfolk, there would be great interest from the teenage population living there. As well as perhaps gaining interest of people from other regions. The thriller genre in itself is appealing the the teenage/young person section of society as this is the generation most exposed to violence and frightening films on a day to day basis. As this generation are used to gore, and frightening films, they wouldn't be revolted by foul language, or extreme violence. But I think that because this age group has become so accustomed to this explicity, they don't realise how effective the unknown can be. Therefore I believe would attract those who are bored of the same, predictable exposure found in thrillers. This is what I must do to achieve the higher marks in my evaluation
Level 4 16–20 marks
Proficient understanding of issues around audience, institution, technology, representation, forms and conventions in relation to production.
Excellent ability to refer to the choices made and outcomes.
Excellent understanding of their development from preliminary to full task.
Excellent ability to communicate.
Excellent skill in the use of digital technology or ICT in the evaluation Proficient understanding of issues around audience, institution, technology, representation, forms and conventions in relation to production Abdobe Premiere Pro Storyboards Storyboards are a key technology when planning and developing a film, it acts as a guide when filming. It also gives a visual representation which makes filming easier. In editing, storyboards are also usefull as you can tell how long a piece of film is meant to be, for example if you wanted a particular shot to last 10 seconds, you could then refer back the storyboard to remind yourself of the amount of time. some of the origional
locations the road which the victim was
origionally going to be chased across The alleyway that the victim was origionally going to be chased down I had originally planned to use these locations within Predator. However for safety reasons, the road was unsafe to film on without traffic being stopped/diverted by the police which was unrealistic. The alleyway didn't have sufficient lighting to film in, and carrying a torch or any other light would have
disturbed the continuity of Predator. I have learnt that Predator As you can see in these print screens, I have learnt a lot about the editing
technologies involved in making a film. I now understand, that the editing
process is probably the most time consuming of all of the processes
involved when producing a film. Many decisions are changed and
developed over the course of the editing process that the end product is in many cases, very different from the origional planning.
I have learnt that there are different layers of sound and video that are condensed together when the file is exported. There is a main audio and video layer which are the primary ones, the content of this is what is shown on screen whereas in the other audio and video layers they are the background sound and title screens ect. For example the sound of the psychopath humming was layered on the 2nd audio layer at points.
I have also learnt how to use the different tools and effects that can be found in Adobe Premiere Pro and have learnt about their effect on the audience. For exagmple, the use of ghosting on the psychopath creates an eriee effect and makes the psychopath seem dangerous and threatening.
I have learnt that there is a ''directors cut' which is the finished version of a film in the way that the director wants it. And that this and other versions are made before being released.
I have developed my skill as I have a clear understanding of the tools in Adobe Premiere Pro. What have I learnt
about editing? I understand that communication would have been a technology that I would have had to use if I was working in a group, by using email, social networking texting, and other mediums. You can watch Predator here: Continuity Camera angles Sound Planning Research Prezi Camera I have learnt many things over the course of production of Predator, and that includes my effectiveness at controlling continuity.I have learnt that continuity plays a big part in creating a film. It helps the effectiveness and verisimilitude of the mise en scene. Continuity can also be hard to control as shown by the many continuity errors within real blockbusters and other films. In my preliminary task I made a few substancial continuity errors which completely ruined the effectiveness of the task. For example to the left you can see the continuity errors that I made in the preliminary task were major distruptors within the continuity. Whereas In Predator I meat few continuity errors for me to overcome. Although I did make some. This includes a guitar being able to be seen in the background to the right of the psychopath's face whilst she is humming however it is not very clear and therefore this didn't alter my decision of using this part. However in some other shots that I tried, it was clearly visable and I made the decision to cut out those parts. Also whilst the psychopath is attacking her victim, she is wearing a coat. To remove this continuity error, I cut out parts where the audience could see her lower part of her body whilst she was in her room. This adds to the effect of the psychopath as it is like the audience is being drawn closer to her without any choice. There is also one other continuity error that I had to resolve: the fact that as the psychopath was chasing the victim into the park, you could see cars driving past which ruined the verisimilitude of Predator as the audience would expect the victim to cry for help. Therefore I decided to cut this part out and just have the part where the psychopath chases the victim in the park. As you can see through my choices and little continuity errors I have learnt a lot about continuity errors; how to control them, and how to resolve them. Here we can see the I.T technician is in the background. This completely ruins the flow of the task as the audience is distracted by him and doesn't focus apon the secretary's face. And here we can see a camera
tripod that we had used earlier in filming. This is the most obvious continuity error anc completely reminds the audience that it isn't real and dulls the effectiveness of the earlier conversation. I have learnt over the course of production that planning plays an important role in producing a film. Without planning the whole process would be flawed, unorganised and not as successful. Planning allows precision and the good use of time which saves time and money when making a film which is something real media products have to try and do to keep to their film budget.
Preperation of equipment
Prop finding/use I believe that I planned my use of time and organisation in a very sisynced way. Although at times I have had to rush partially to meet deadlines which I handled and was able to work quickly and efficiantly in. However if I was to do this again I would have used a dairy or list of dates on what I plan to do. I have learned that planning and organisation of production is extremely important. Here you can see that I have interviewed a member of my target audience as to gain research into what my target audience wanted in a thriller. I have considered peoples opinions as it is the audience that matter when making a film. As you can see here, this is an example of how I have
used good planning within Predator. Research can have a major impact on a film. It can influence film makers and producton companies as to using some of the techniques/ideas shown in research. I researched a wide variety of thrillers and production processes as to gain knowledge and influence of what current media products are like and if they are similar to each other and if there were any big differences. I have learnt a lot about the different elements of what makes a good thriller through indepth research which in comparison to the research that was conducted for my Preliminary task is much more influencial and helpful. In my preliminary task I only used recent and brief knowledge with the addition of previous viewing of thriller films before I had started the course.
Research has allowed for influences on Predator which can be seen in this prezi:
http://prezi.com/unkushkpxa7d/my-influences-of-making-my-thriller/ This is me answering questions
about Predator that my target audience have
chosen to ask. Prezi, is another technology that I have learned about and used whilst developing Predator. It is a useful website that allows the user to present and record notes for: analysing films, revision, planning, and generating ideas. During Predator's development I used Prezi to note my research of different film maker's roles as well as noting my influences. I have developed my skill in making prezis over the course. As you can see by the screen grabs. I have learned how to create a viewing path, how to seperate and organise my points, how to insert shapes, pictures and video. Prezi is a very useful tool in film development. Transitions Different camera angles/shots
--An establishing shot in film and television sets up, or establishes the context for a scene by showing the relationship between its important figures and objects. It is generally a long or extreme long shot at the beginning of a scene indicating where, and sometimes when, the remainder of the scene takes place. For example showing a house (establishing the location) and then cutting to a room inside the house where the characters are talking.
--Medium Shot: a camera shot from a medium distance, it often shows a character from the waist upwards.
--Close up: A camera shot that closely frames a person or object, usually a person’s face.
--Extreme close up: A shot that very closely frames a person or object, a common example is where you only see the character's eyes.
--Pan: side to side camera movement
--extreme long shot: contains a large amount of landscape. It is often used at the beginning of a scene or a film to establish general location (setting). This is also known as an establishing shot.
--A long shot: contains landscape but gives the viewer a more specific idea of setting. A long shot may show the viewers the building where the action will take place.
--A full shot: contains a complete view of the characters. From this shot, viewers can take in the costumes of characters and may also help to demonstrate the relationships between characters.
--A bird's eye angle: is an angle that looks directly down upon a scene. This angle is often used as an establishing angle, along with an extreme long shot, to establish setting.
--A high angle: is a camera angle that looks down upon a subject. A character shot with a high angle will look vulnerable or small. These angles are often used to demonstrate to the audience a perspective of a particular character.
--An eye-level angle: puts the audience on an equal footing with the character/s. This is the most commonly used angle in most films as it allows the viewers to feel comfortable with the characters.
--A low angle: is a camera angle that looks up at a character. This is the opposite of a high angle and makes a character look more powerful. This can make the audience feel vulnerable and small by looking up at the character. This can help the responder feel empathy if they are viewing the frame from another character's point of view.
--A master shot is a film recording of an entire dramatized scene, from start to finish, from an angle that keeps all the players in view. It is often a long shot and can sometimes perform a double function as an establishing shot. Usually, the master shot is the first shot checked off during the shooting of a scene—it is the foundation of what is called camera coverage, other shots that reveal different aspects of the action, groupings of two or three of the actors at crucial moments, close-ups of individuals, insert shots of various props, and so on.
--A crane shot: is often used by composers of films to signify the end of a film or scene. The effect is achieved by the camera being put on a crane that can move upwards
--An Evangeline shot: is derived from the popular anime series 'Neon Genesis Evangeline'. This camera movement begins as an extreme close-up and zooms out abruptly, creating a blurring effect to emphasise the speed and size of the object
--Match on Action: A match on action is when some action occurring before the temporally questionable cut is picked up where the cut left it by the shot immediately following. For example, a shot of someone tossing a ball can be edited to show two different views, while maintaining temporal continuity by being sure that the second shot shows the arm of the subject in the same stage of its motion as it was left when cutting from the first shot.
--180 degree rule: The 180° rule is a basic guideline in film making that states those two characters (or other elements) in the same scene should always have the same left/right relationship to each other. If the camera passes over the imaginary axis connecting the two subjects, it is called crossing the line. The new shot, from the opposite side, is known as a reverse angle.
--30 degree rule: The 30° rule is a basic film editing guideline that states the camera should move at least 30° between shots of the same subject. This change of perspective makes the shots different enough to avoid a jump cut. Too much movement around the subject may violate the 180 degree rule.
--Insert: shot of part of a scene as filmed from a different angle and/or focal length from the master shot. Inserts cover action already covered in the master shot, but emphasize a different aspect of that action due to the different framing
--Zoom: Framing movement, in which the focal length of the zoom lens is altered to make the subject appear closer to, or further away from the camera. Note that this effect is similar, but not the same as moving the camera itself closer to or further away from the subject.
--An over the shoulder shot: is a shot of someone or something taken over the shoulder of another person. The back of the shoulder and head of this person is used to frame the image of whatever (or whomever) the camera is pointing toward. This type of shot is very common when two characters are having a conversation and will usually follow an establishing shot which helps the audience place the characters in their setting. It is an example of a camera angle.
Maslow's Hierarchy of needs Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology, proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper A Theory of Human Motivation. Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans' innate curiosity. His theories parallel many other theories of human developmental psychology, all of which focus on describing the stages of growth in humans.
The most fundamental and basic four layers of the pyramid contain what Maslow called "deficiency needs" or "d-needs": esteem , friendship and love, security, and physical needs. With the exception of the most fundamental needs, if these "deficiency needs" are not met, the body gives no physical indication but the individual feels anxious and tense. Maslow's theory suggests that the most basic level of needs must be met before the individual will strongly desire, or focus motivation upon, the secondary or higher level needs. Maslow also coined the term Metamotivation to describe the motivation of people who go beyond the scope of the basic needs and strive for constant betterment, for achievement or improve morally. Metamotivated people are driven by B-needs (Being Needs), instead of deficiency needs (D-Needs).
This theory takes a big effect on the audience. It shows the basis for human needs and interaction with other humans. The lack of the psychopaths moral needs influences the audience to sympathise with the victim as it is natural for humans to have a need for morality and righteousness. This means that the audience would be gripped by the fact that the psychopath has no moral needs which frightens them as humans have 'B-needs'. The fact that the psychopaths mind is different to this theory makes the psychopath seem even more dangerous and threatening as it isn't considered normal. As security of body is very fundamental the audience is able to sympathise with the victims death. Using these ideas I am more confident that my thriller is effective at attracting my target audience.
These are just some of the camera angles/shots that I have learned over the course and in the progression of Predator I have learnt that the camera use and the users understanding of the camera plays an important role in producing a film which is the most obvious technology aside from CGI. The audience of films are aware that cameras are used to
shoot scenes and shots. Although the editing of camera shots in the majority of circumstances are so efficiant that the audience hardly notice the transitions. But it is the shots, angles and composition that create the biggest effect on the audience, in my opinion due to my prior knowledge and research, although other technologies contribute significantly. However, I have learnt that original planning can meet obstacles and the changes of ideas can lead to changes in a film. Such as here Transitions are added into a film as part of the editing process. Here is an unintentional jump cut, and in parts the camera is knocked. This shows my poor use of the camera. This can be compared to Predator where I make still shots as well as intentional shaky pans. My camera skill has developed substancially since making my Preliminary task. Incidental sound/music = Incidental music is often "background" music/sound, and adds atmosphere to the action. It may take the form of something as simple as a low, ominous tone suggesting an impending startling event, or, to enhance the depiction of a story-advancing sequence. It makes the audience relate with their own emotions to whatever the character may be feeling/thinking.
Ambient sound/music = the sounds of a given location or space, for example if a film scene was set in an office you would hear phones ringing, people talking, and other general office noises. This makes the audience able to believe the film scene and as a whole as it would have more verisimilitude.
Diegetic sound = Diegetic sound is any sound presented as originated from source within the film's world. Digetic sound can be either on screen or off screen depending on whatever its source is within the frame or outside the frame. Another term for diegetic sound is actual sound. Diegetic sound also adds to the verisimilitude making the affect on the audience greater.
Non-Diegetic sound = Non-diegetic sound is represented as coming from the a source outside story space. For example incidental music/sound is an example of this as it isn't shown to come from a source. This creates a stronger sense of emotion in the audience, for example a sudden high pitch sound would create fear.
Dialogue: The script, what the characters say - digetic sound
Voice over: Narration - Non digetic sound
Sound track: Music that accompanies the film footage
Foley editing: Adding in sound which has been recorded, creates sound through physical action
There are also two types of sound in relation to time, sychronous and asynchonous.
Sychronous: Something/s that are occuring at the same time, when the visual and audio do match, for example in filming hearing a sound that fits in with what it on screen is synchronous
Asynchronous: Something/s that are not occuring at the same time, when the visual and audio do not match, for example in jaws there is the high pitched sound that happens when the shark is about to attack but you cannot see it so it is asynchronous in some moments. . The Bird's-Eye view
This shows a scene from directly overhead, a very unnatural and strange angle. Familiar objects viewed from this angle might seem totally unrecognisable at first (umbrellas in a crowd, dancers' legs). This shot does, however, put the audience in a godlike position, looking down on the action. People can be made to look insignificant, ant-like, part of a wider scheme of things. Hitchcock (and his admirers, like Brian de Palma) is fond of this style of shot.
A cameraman, raised above the action, gets a high angle shot2. High Angle
Not so extreme as a bird's eye view. The camera is elevated above the action using a crane to give a general overview. High angles make the object photographed seem smaller, and less significant (or scary). The object or character often gets swallowed up by their setting - they become part of a wider picture.
3. Eye Level
A fairly neutral shot; the camera is positioned as though it is a human actually observing a scene, so that eg actors' heads are on a level with the focus. The camera will be placed approximately five to six feet from the ground.
4. Low Angle
These increase height (useful for short actors like Tom Cruise or James McAvoy) and give a sense of speeded motion. Low angles help give a sense of confusion to a viewer, of powerlessness within the action of a scene. The background of a low angle shot will tend to be just sky or ceiling, the lack of detail about the setting adding to the disorientation of the viewer. The added height of the object may make it inspire fear and insecurity in the viewer, who is psychologically dominated by the figure on the screen.
5. Oblique/Canted Angle
Sometimes the camera is tilted (ie is not placed horizontal to floor level), to suggest imbalance, transition and instability (very popular in horror movies). This technique is used to suggest POINT-OF-VIEW shots (ie when the camera becomes the 'eyes' of one particular character,seeing what they see — a hand held camera is often used for this.
types of camera There are two types of professional video cameras: High end portable, recording cameras (essentially, high-end camcorders) used for ENG and EFP image acquisition, and studio cameras which lack the recording capability of a camcorder, and are often fixed on studio pedestals. Portable professional cameras are generally much larger than consumer cameras and are designed to be carried on the shoulder.
This is an ENG camera This is an EFP camera I have learnt that the ENG camera is the most popularly used
in the film industry. I also know that hand-held cameras are becoming
increasingly popular among film makers as they are relatively cheap and
create a realistic effect for example in the film cloverfield and in Predator
where the psychopath chases the victim and where the victim looks around
for the psychopath. I have learnt and used this technique. when making my preliminary task I had little knowledge of how different camera angles can have different and intentional effects on the audience. I now understand that:
Low angles look down apon a scene/character(s)/object to give the impression that the focus is weak and vunerable whereas high angles look up at the focus to create a sense of authority and power, for sometimes fear and others greatness.
I have used these angles in Predator for those reasons. Such as when the Psychopath is smiling into the camera after having killed the victim. Transitions are a form of technology that is part of the editing process. It is easy using Abode Premiere Pro to drag into the timeline different transitions that have different effects on the audience and generally makes the film a more interesting film to watch as in most films, obvious transitions aren't usually used. Therefore by adding 'dip to black' and 'morph' I have used a good use of technology in terms of transitions into Predator. All of which I have learnt in the progression from my preliminary task to Predator as I understood that by using dip to black a distance in time is created but I now know to what extent using dip to black can be used, for example in Predator there is a constant switch between the current time and the Psychopaths memory.
I have also learnt about many other transitions that could have been used in Predator if I had chosen to use them. However several transitions that were available were not suitable for Predator as I was trying to keep Predator realistic. These include:
- Cross Dissolve
- Dip to White (fade)
-Dissolve I have learnt much about using sound.
During making my preliminary task I had had little/no knowledge of how to add or edit sound into premiere pro. At first the programme seemed complex and intimidating but with practise I was able to learn how to import sound files and attatch and unattach those audio files to video files so that they played in synchronisation. I have also learnt how to speed up and cut audio files. In comparison to in my Preliminary task, I had little knowledge of the types of sound in general also. However shown by the definitions to the left, it is clear I have an excellent understanding of sound which highlights my increased knowledge and experience with editing and using sound. In my preliminary task I only used digetic and synchronous sound as I had no idea in how I could edit in other types of sound and whether it was legal to use some sounds. Whereas In Predator I have used Foley editing, music, Dialogue, Non-digetic and digetic sound, synchronous and asynchronous sound. I understand these terms whereas in my preliminary task, I had only a basic understanding of them.
Just some of my research The key angles that I have used and that
I have learnt from the progression of Predator
from my Preliminary task. And that's the end of my evaluation