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Transcript of Microbiology
- Chapter 1 :
Microbiology , The Science
- Chapter 2 :
Microbiology: The Science
- Microbiology : The study of very small living organisms that we don't see by our naked eyes
- Pathogen : M.O cause disease
- non pathogen : M.O don't cause a disease
- Opportunistic pathogen : an organism that exists
as part of the normal human body environment and does not become a health threat until the body's immune system fails.
- Ubiquitous : virtually everywhere.
- Only 3% are disease-causing (pathogenic).
- Majority are non-pathogens.
plant pathogens that consist of single-stranded RNA
protein in a misfolded form
Why Study Microbiology?
•(1) Human Indigenous Microflora (Microbiota)
•(2) Essential for Life on Planet
•(3) Role in Elemental Cycles
•(4) Role in Food Chains
•(5) Role in Decomposition & Fertilization
•(6) Use in Industry (Biotechnology)
•(7) Use in Genetic Engineering
•(8) Use in Bioremediation
•(9) Use as Cell Models
•(10) As Cause of Diseases
(1) Human Indigenous Microflora (Microbiota)
•Their # is = 10 times × total # of our different body cells (10 trillion cells) = 100 trillion microbes. = 500-1000 different spp.
(2) Essential for Life on Planet
•Microorganisms produce more oxygen in atmosphere than do plants.
•Photosynthetic bacteria e.g. algae & cyanobacteria produce oxygen by photosynthesis.
(3) Role in Elemental Cycles
•Many microbes are involved in elemental cycles (e.g. carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur & phosphorus cycles).
•In nitrogen cycle:
(i) Nitrogen-fixing bacteria (w live on or near roots of legumes) convert free nitrogen gas from air into ammonia in soil.
(ii) Nitrifying bacteria convert ammonia in soil to nitrites & nitrates to replenish soil nutrients.
(iii) Other bacteria convert nitrogen in nitrites to free nitrogen gas in air thus completing the cycle.
(4) Role in Food Chains
•Plankton = tiny microscopic ocean/ marine living organisms serving
as starting point of many food chains.
(1) Phytoplankton = tiny microscopic ocean/ marine living organisms e.g. bacteria, algae & plants serving as food for tiny animals.
(2) Zooplankton = tiny microscopic ocean/ marine living animals serving as food for larger animals.
•And so on Humans are at top of food chain.
(5) Role in Decomposition & Fertilization
•Many organisms are Decomposers or
living on & breaking down/ decomposing dead/ decaying organic materials (plants & animals) & waste products of living organisms into soil inorganic nutrients (nitrates, phosphates, sulphates, Ammonia, CO2 , water & other chemicals) necessary for growth of plants.
(6) Use in Industry (Biotechnology)
(7) Use in Genetic Engineering
•Insertion of foreign gene, coding for specific protein, taken from one organism (e.g. bacterium, human, animal or plant) into other microorganisms (usually bacterial or yeast cell) they & their progeny produce these proteins e.g. insulin, growth hormone, interferons & materials for use as vaccines.
(8) Use in Bioremediation
•Some genetically engineered microbes are capable of decomposing industrial wastes (e.g. oil spills).
(9) Use as Cell Models
•To study structure/ composition & physiology/ functions of microbial cells which quite often apply to cells in general inc. human cells.
•Intestinal E. coli has also been studied/ used extensively in microbial structure, microbial physiology, genetics & genetic engineering.
Careers in Microbiology
•Phycology (algae)/ Phycologist.
•Mycology (fungi)/ Mycologist.
•Parasitology/ Parasitologist [protozoa (Protozoology/ Protozoologist) , helminths & arthropods].
Applied Microbiology (1)
(1) Industrial Microbiology (Biotechnology) (Industry & Microbiology): Table + alcohol & organic materials e.g. enzymes, vitamins & antibiotics.
(2) Veterinary Microbiology (Animals & Microbiology): Infectious diseases of animals, Zoonoses (zoonotic diseases), food production from livestock, raising of other agriculturally important animals & care of pets.
(3) Agricultural Microbiology (Agriculture & Microbiology): beneficial & harmful roles of microbes in: soil formation & fertility, elemental cycles, diseases of plants, digestive processes of cows & other ruminants and production of crops & foods.
- Food microbiologist: production, processing, storage, cooking & serving of food and prevention of food spoilage, food poisoning & food toxicity.
- Dairy microbiologist: grading, pasteurizing & processing of milk & cheeses and prevention of contamination, spoilage & transmission of diseases from environmental, animal & human sources.
Applied Microbiology (2)
(4) Environmental Microbiology/ Microbial Ecology & Bioremediation (Environment/ Ecology & Microbiology): (Environment inc. Soil, water & air)
- Water & Sewage treatment : purification of waste water is partially accomplished by
in holding tanks of sewage disposal plants, where feces, garbage & other organic materials are collected & reduced to harmless waste.
- Iron- & sulfur-utilizing bacteria break-down metals & minerals.
(5) Sanitary Microbiology (Water & Food):
processing & disposal of garbage & sewage wastes and purification & processing of drinking water supplies.
Inspection of food processing installations & eating establishments.
Applied Microbiology (3)
(6) Paleomicrobiology (Anthropology, Archaeology & Microbiology): study of ancient microbes.
-As NO cellular fossils are available, finding molecular fossils (usually lipid molecules) made ONLY by microbes in ancient rocks Evidence of origin/ existence of life
billion years ago.
- Finding Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in Egyptian human mummies/ tissue or bone Evidence of TB 3000 BC.
(7) Microbial Genetics & Genetic Engineering (Genetics & Microbiology).
(8) Microbial Physiology (Biochemistry & Microbiology).
Applied Microbiology (4)
•Medical Microbiology (Medicine & Microbiology) - Clinical/ Diagnostic Microbiology (Lab. Sciences & Microbiology):
Parasitology including Entomology.
Microorganisms cause two categories of diseases: infectious diseases and microbial intoxications
An infectious disease
results when a pathogen colonizes the body and subsequently causes disease
A microbial intoxication
results when a
person ingests a toxin (poisonous substance) that has been produced by a microorganism.
- Abiogenesis : life can arise spontaneously from nonliving material
- Biogenesis : life can only arise from preexisting life.
- Germ theory of disease : the theory that specific microorganisms cause specific infectious diseases.
(leprosy = hanson)
Microorganisms are tiny organisms & microscopes are required to see them microorganisms are MICROSCOPIC.
•Metric System Units of Length are used to express:
(i) Sizes of microorganisms.
(ii) Resolving power (Resolution) of optical instruments (e.g. human eye, telescope, pair of binoculars, magnifying lens & microscope).
Sizes of bacteria & protozoa are usually expressed in μm.
•Sizes of viruses are usually expressed in nm.
•RBC 7μm in diameter.
How many times better is the resolution of the transmission electron microscope than
the resolution of the scanning electron microscope? ( 20 / 0.2 ) = 100 !
= 10 - 300 n
- Diarrhea is not a specific infectious disease , it’s a syndrome
- Pneumonia which is lung infection that is might be caused by bacteria or virus or protozoa or fungi
- the dysentery can be caused by
like in the bacillary dysentery which is caused by
) and is called amebic dysentery <<its
symptoms are diarrhea or tenesmus and abdominal pain
1 inch = 2.54
- The characteristic feature of (mold)
is the hyphae ( a long, branching filamentous structure of a fungus)
- The major structural polymer in fungal cell walls is typically chitin
(one lens, use light)
(>one lens , use light)
most common microscope to be used in the microbiology lab
resolving power is the limiting factor in all microscope
commonly used to see spirochetes ( the microorganisms that cause syphilis)
used in clinical immunology lab
( not used nowadays )
any material on it
This spiral bacteria is not stained
It’s the reflection of the light