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Close Reading (Intermediate)
Transcript of Close Reading (Intermediate)
Louise Rosenblatt - Transaction Theory/
Reader Response Theory
Cris Tovani, Doug Fisher,
Mike Schmoker, Kelly
Gallagher, Penny Kittle Output Process Read Why close read? Close Reading in the Intermediate Grades (Definition) The careful and purposeful interpretation of a text, wherein which readers pay close attention to the way ideas unfold as they are read. Student Interviews To support our understanding of what an author is really saying Close Reading and CCSS Input Tim Shanahan's "What is Close Reading?" Court Allam's (iTeach. iCoach. iBlog) "5 close reading strategies to support the Common Core" Watch Clip of 5th graders using a close reading strategy Talk What is close reading? What does it look like in the classroom? How has your understanding of close reading been deepened or altered? Watch More with Doug Fisher Read Closing in on Close Reading by Nancy Boynes How does close reading help us think and rethink about the gradual release framework? Unit Feedback To the Classroom Long-Term Short-Term Students get the chance to revisit the text to become all four roles of reading Code Breaker Meaning Maker Understanding the text at the surface level. Comprehending the text at the level intended by the author. By stopping after the first two roles, the reader is only a consumer of the text. Understanding that the text is not neutral and that existing biases inform calls to action. Text User Text Critic Analyzing the factors that influenced the author and the text. The CCSS require students to understand what the text means and be able to defend their opinions about the text with evidence from the text. (Freebody and Luke, 1990) Read the standards in one cluster for your grade level. Circle or underline words that indicate a close reading would be necessary. Certain texts need to be read and digested.
What does the text say?
How does the author say it?
Why does it matter? What does a text say? How does the author say it? Why does it matter? Key Points of Close Reading Use short passages
Reading with a pencil
Practice protocols for close reading
Noticing things that are confusing
Discussing the text with others
Responding to text dependent questions Not all texts require close reading Use short pieces. Narrative or informational text Close reading requires a willingness to return to the text more than once. Slow down the reading process, always returning to text. Rereading helps the reader to notice details and subtle characteristics of things like tone and voice. Reflection Close Reading What are the key ideas to take away about close reading? What questions do you still have about close reading? What does this new learning make you think about or wonder? Post-Its or Enter feedback electronically
on computer or smartphone:
In browser: m.socrative.com
Enter classroom #: 491719 PARCC PARCC’s Fundamental Advance PARCC is designed to reward quality instruction aligned to the Standards, so the assessment is worthy of preparation rather than a distraction from good work. PARCC’s Core Commitments to ELA/Literacy Assessment Quality Texts Worth Reading: The assessments will use authentic texts worthy of study instead of artificially produced or commissioned passages.
Questions Worth Answering: Sequences of questions that draw students into deeper encounters with texts will be the norm (as in an excellent classroom), rather than sets of random questions of varying quality.
Better Standards Demand Better Questions: Instead of reusing existing items, PARCC will develop custom items to the Standards.
Fidelity to the Standards (now in Teachers’ hands): PARCC evidences are rooted in the language of the Standards so that expectations remain the same in both instructional and assessment settings. What Are the Shifts at the Heart of PARCC Design (and the Standards)? Complexity: Regular practice with complex text and its academic language.
Evidence: Reading and writing grounded in evidence from text, literary and informational.
Knowledge: Building knowledge through content rich nonfiction. Shift 1: Regular practice with complex text and its academic language PARCC builds a staircase of text complexity to ensure students are on track each year for college and career reading.
PARCC rewards careful, close reading rather than racing through passages.
PARCC systematically focuses on the words that matter most—not obscure vocabulary, but the academic language that pervades complex texts. Shift 2: Reading and writing grounded in evidence from text, literary and informational PARCC focuses on students rigorously citing evidence from texts throughout the assessment (including selected-response items).
PARCC includes questions with more than one right answer to allow students to generate a range of rich insights that are substantiated by evidence from text(s).
PARCC requires writing to sources rather than writing to de-contextualized expository prompts.
PARCC also includes rigorous expectations for narrative writing, including accuracy and precision in writing in later grades. Shift 3: Building knowledge through content rich nonfiction PARCC assesses not just ELA but a full range of reading and writing across the disciplines of science and social studies.
PARCC simulates research on the assessment, including the comparison and synthesis of ideas across a range of informational sources. Three Innovative Item Types That Showcase Students’ Command of Evidence with Complex Texts
Evidence-Based Selected Response (EBSR)—Combines a traditional selected-response question with a second selected-response question that asks students to show evidence from the text that supports the answer they provided to the first question. Underscores the importance of Reading Anchor Standard 1 for implementation of the CCSS.
Technology-Enhanced Constructed Response (TECR)—Uses technology to capture student comprehension of texts in authentic ways that have been difficult to score by machine for large scale assessments (e.g., drag and drop, cut and paste, shade text, move items to show relationships).
Range of Prose Constructed Responses (PCR)—Elicits evidence that students have understood a text or texts they have read and can communicate that understanding well both in terms of written expression and knowledge of language and conventions. There are four of these items of varying types on each annual performance-based assessment. PARCC Summative Assessment with EBSR, TECR, and PCR Items End-of-Year Assessment (Grade 3): “How Animals Live” Understanding the End-of-Year Assessment Students will be given several passages to read closely.
EBSR and TECR questions will be sequenced in a way that they will draw students into deeper encounters with the texts and will result in thorough comprehension of the concepts to provide models for the regular course of instruction.
Will draw on higher order skills such as critical reading and analysis, the comparison and synthesis of ideas within and across texts, and determining the meaning of words and phrases in context. Texts Worth Reading? Range: Follows the requirements in the standards to make use of informational texts, including history, science, and technical passages (50% of the points in grades 3-5 are to come from informational texts).
Quality: This is an example of a science passage from a third-grade textbook.
Complexity: Quantitatively and qualitatively, the passages have been validated and deemed suitable for use at grade 3. Questions Worth Answering? On the following pages there is one Evidence-Based Selected-Response Item and one Technology Enhanced Constructed-Response Item that challenge students’ command of evidence with complex texts. Part B
Which sentence from the article best supports the answer to Part A?
“Animals get oxygen from air or water.”
"Animals can be grouped by their traits.”*
"Worms are invertebrates.”
"All animals grow and change over time.”
"Almost all animals need water, food, oxygen, and shelter to live." Grade 3 Evidence-Based Selected-Response Item #1 Part A
What is one main idea of “How Animals Live?”
There are many types of animals on the planet.
Animals need water to live.
There are many ways to sort different animals.*
Animals begin their life cycles in different forms. Aligns to the Standards and Reflects Good Practice Specific CCSS alignment to:
RI.3.2 (main idea).
RI.3.10 (complex text).
While this is an example of a less complex item—one where the main idea and details to support it are explicit and readily found—students must provide evidence for the accuracy of their answer in Part B, illustrating one of the key shifts: use of textual evidence. Grade 3 Technology-Enhanced Constructed-Response Item Drag the words from the word box into the correct locations on the graphic to show the life cycle of a butterfly as described in “How Animals Live.”
Words: Aligns to the Standards and
Reflects Good Practice Specific CCSS alignment to:
RI.3.1 (use of evidence).
RI.3.3 (relationship between events).
RI.3.10 (complex texts).
Reflects the key shift of building knowledge from informational text:
students must apply their understanding of the text to complete the graphic.
requires explicit references to the text as the basis for the answers rather than simply guessing.
Whereas traditional items might have asked students to “fill in one blank” on a graphic (with three steps already provided), this technology enhanced item allows students to demonstrate understanding of the entire sequence of the life cycle because none of the steps are ordered for them.