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1--Cell Theory

Cells Structure and Function
by

Lisa OConnor

on 16 September 2016

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Transcript of 1--Cell Theory

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli
The Beginning of Life
Cells
I. Cells—basic unit structure of living things
Microscopes—allowed us to see
Hooke
Why did Hooke name cells “cells”?
-because they looked like little prison cells
What are cells and what do they do?
II. Leeuwenhoek—used a simple microscope to find moving organisms. "Animalcules"--Inspired other Scientists.
III. Three German Scientists
-Matthias Schleiden—all plants are made of cells
-Theodor Schwann—all animals are made of cells
-Rudolf Virchow—“all cells come from cells”

This led to the Cell Theory: (SUPER IMPORTANT)
1.All living things are composed of cells.
2.Cells are basic units of structure and function in all living things
3.All cells are produced from other cells.
IV. The Cell theory could not have been developed without MICROSCOPES
--Light Microscope--lenses bend ________ to magnify the object
--(property)Magnification—ability to make things look larger than they are
--(property)Resolution-- sharpness of an image
--Lenses—convex lenses
Compound Microscope—magnifies even more because it has two lenses
Hooke, Leeuwenhoek and other early researchers used all light microscopes
V. Electron Microscopes were created later and can help us view even smaller objects.
1. Use a beam of electrons instead of light
2. Able to see much smaller objects
3. Better magnification and resolution

V.Nucleic Acids—made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus—contain instructions that cells need to form activities for life

a.DNA—most found in chromatin
b.RNA—important in protein production
Section 3: Chemical Compounds in Cells
I. Elements and Compounds
A.Element—any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
a.Ex. oxygen, nitrogen
B.Compound—when two or more elements combine chemically ex. Carbon dioxide (carbon and oxygen
a.Organic Compounds—contain carbon
i.Ex. Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
b.Inorganic Compounds—do not contain carbon
i.Ex. Water and salt
II.Carbohydrates—energy rich, made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
a.Sugars and starches
b.Many foods that come from plants contain starch—potatoes, pasta, rice and bread
c.Breaks down starch into glucose—something your body can use
d.Cellulose is a carbohydrate
IV.Proteins—made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
---20 different amino acids (alphabet
a.Form parts of cell membranes
b.Organelles
c.Enzymes—speeds up chemical reactions
Section 4:Cell Environment
VI.Water—makes up 2/3 of human body
a.Necessary for chemical reactions
b.Helps cells keep size and shape
I. Passive Transport—not require energy

A. Diffusion
1. molecules across cell membrane, High concentration to low concentration
B. Osmosis
1. diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
2. water molecules move from high concentration to low concentration
3. equilibrium=EQUAL on both sides
4. Red blood cells, animal cells, plant cells
II. Active Transport—using energy
A. Particles move from low concentration to high concentration
B. Transport proteins:
a. in membrane “pick up” molecules carry into cell (vice versa)
C. Transport by engulfing:
a. Cell membrane surrounds particle
b. forms vacuole in cell
D. Why are cells so small?
a. Cell too large could not survive
b. takes too long
Organic Compounds
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
Sugars Starches
Fats, waxes, oils
Amino Acids
DNA
RNA
Extra movies about cells
III.Lipids—energy rich made of
carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
a.Oils, fats, and waxes
b.Olive oil
c.Fat drippings
Red blood cells in hyper, hypo and iso tonic water

http://www.nclark.net/osmosisPocus.gif
4. Different effects of Osmosis on the cells
a. cell--concentration of water in and outside cell the same
b. low water concentration(a lot salt water) outside of cell--water moves out of cell
c. high water concentration outside cell ( lil salt water)--water moves in cell
To explain elements and compounds--
legos of different colors
show different colors to be organic or inorganic
Carbon=red
Lab: Gummy Bear Osmosis
HAPPY=EQUILIBRIUM!
Section 2: Looking Inside Cells
Mitochondria
Rough E.R.
Smooth E.R.
Lysosome
Vacuole
Nucleus
Nucleolus
Ribosome
1: Discovering Cells
Cell wall
Cell Membrane
Cytoplasm
Golgi Body
chloroplast
http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/3dcell.htm
http://www.syvum.com/cgi/online/serve.cgi/squizzes/chem/compds1.html
make compounds out of legos
Schleiden
Schwann
Virchow
Leeuwenhoek
Electron Microscope
Light Microscope
What in the world are inside of cells?
I. Organelles--tiny structures that carry out specific functions within the cell.
II. Type of Cells--Eukaryote-- TRUE NUCLEUS
Prokaryote--NO NUCLEUS

THE WALL!
THE BRAIN
JELLO
THE ENERGY--
STORAGE WARS
Cells live for:
about 120 days
The length of a cell's life can vary. For example, white blood cells live for about thirteen days, cells in the top layer of your skin live about 30 days, red blood cells live for about 120 days, and liver cells live about 18 months.
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