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Civil Rights Movement in the United Staets
Transcript of Civil Rights Movement in the United Staets
Amendments & Jim Crow
Integration and resistance: Sports, School, Changes
Civil Rights Leaders
Still fighting today?
Quiz it up!
Changes Following the Civil War
14 Amendment-- July 9, 1868:
Addresses citizenship rights for Americans, and equal protection of under the laws of the United States
Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896
Separate but equal
Freedom under the US Constitution, but not from Jim Crow
Jim Crow Laws were state laws created to suppress black rights in the US, and maintain segregation
Integration & Resistance: Sports
1936 Olympic - Jesse Owens dominated running events, and made the world take notice
Jackie Robinson breaks color barrier in sports by entering MLB in 1947
Forced to endure immense racism and hatred (at first)
His brother was in 1936 Olympics and won a silver behind Owens
Integration & Resistance: School
Brow V. Board of Education, 1954
Overturns Plessy V. Ferguson and separate but equal
Little Rock Nine, 1957
9 Black students enroll for school at a previously all-white school.
Little Rock Crisis followed when the Arkansas Governor, Orval Faubus and National Guard would not let students enter
President Eisenhower and the 101st Airborne had to intervene
Ruby Bridges, 1960:
In New Orleans, at the age of 6, Ruby Bridges became the first black elementary school child to attend a white school
Many teachers refused to teach, and many white students went home
Integration & Resistance: Growth
Protests will continue, and grow larger as support grows and fears subside with changes.
1960 Greensboro Sit-In Movement is a great example of MLK’s civil disobedience
What is a sit-in
Growth in resistance leads to frustration for those afraid of change.
Civil disobedience working.
April, 1963, Birmingham Police use dogs, and fire hoses on protestors by Public Safety Commissioner, Eugene “Bull” Connor.
Fighting ‘Freedom Riders’ who took interstate buses, integrated them intentionally and drove to Alabama to challenge laws, and form protests.
Bad publicity, and gathered national attention as JFK openly supported Civil Rights Movement.
Civil Rights Leaders
Martin Luther King Jr.
Preached about non-violent resistance
followed by teaching of Gandhi and Henry David Thoreau
Became the face of the Non-violent Civil Rights Movement
Founded the SCLC and the SNCC
Letter from the Birmingham Jail
In the letter, "Letter from Birmingham Jail," King justified civil disobedience by saying that without forceful action, true civil rights would never be achieved. Direct action is justified in the face unjust laws.
March on Washington, D.C. August 1963
Held outside Lincoln Memorial to promote civil rights
Location of the famous "I have a dream" speech
Assassinated in Memphis in 1968 by James E. Ray
Civil Rights Leaders: Continued
Nation of Islam
Led by radical Elijah Muhammad
Encouraged 'black nationalism' - Separate communities
teach self-respect and self-defense
Spokesman for Nation of Islam
took the name X because his ancestors original had been lost due to slavery
advocated separation from whites and self-defense from racial prejudice and violence
changed views on integration in 1964 after his pilgrimage to Mecca and discovered that Orthodox Muslims preach equality among races
Assassinated in 1965 by rival Nation of Islam member who did not like Malcolm X's change in views at New York City rally
Still Fighting Today??
The Jim Crow Laws and hatred from the racial segregation during the Civil Rights Movement may be over, by new fights have emerged.
Profiling after 9/11 or with border wars
GLBT rights and marriage?
Pee Wee Reese putting his arm around Jackie in the middle of a game silenced an angry crowd and showed first sign of acceptance.
1. Were Jim Crow Laws "real laws" according to the US Constitution?
2. What did Brown v. Board of Education allow?
3. What is a sit-in?
4. Identify a modern Civil Rights issue being fought over today?