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Mapping the Efficiency of Regional Innovation Systems: A Typology for Spanish Regions

Xabier Alberdi Pons Juan José Gibaja Martins Mario Davide Parrilli
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Xabier Alberdi

on 23 September 2013

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Transcript of Mapping the Efficiency of Regional Innovation Systems: A Typology for Spanish Regions

Motivation of the study
Conceptual framework
Empirical study
Results
Contributions and limitations of the study
There´s major agreement on the claim that
innovation
is the key factor promoting competitiveness...
.…and maybe for this reason, the importance of
evaluating
the behavior of economies in terms of
"system failures"
like the
lack of connectivity
among agents of the
RIS
has been overlooked.
Oslo Manual, OECD 1997/2006
Asheim et al. 2012
Kostiainen, 2002
Asheim et al. 2012
The quantitative tradition
The qualitative tradition
It "scores" RIS´s performance by means of input-output datasets...
Susiluoto 2003,
Zabala-Iturriagagoitia et al. 2007
It evaluates efficiency at the level of firms and, in a more aggregate form, at the level of industries, and among distinct “communities” constituting RISs
Bessant et al 1995, Burt 1992, Murphy et al. 2003, Parrilli et al. 2010, Howells et al. 2011
:)
Xabier Alberdi Pons
Juan José Gibaja Martins
Mario Davide Parrilli
Mapping the efficiency of Regional Innovation Systems
Groups of Spanish Regions
RIS can be further decomposed into several
subsystems
that help us specify important interactions
...and these "gaps" and "subsystems" put together will help us set our empirical study...
1
2
3
Fischer 2001
Cooke et al. 1998, Autio 1998
Tödtling et al. 2005
Knowledge exploration subsystem
knowledge exploitation subsystem
Regional policy subsystem
innovation gap
“inefficient relation between innovation structures and production systems”

...we evaluate the density of beneficial interactions occurring between both exploration and exploitation subsystems.

Parrilli et al. 2010
Valley of death
“disconnects between public sector´s technology creation financing, and private sector´s funding for its early commercialization”

...we evaluate the capital investment between public sector financing and private sector funding when translating technological innovation into commercial opportunities by entrepreneurs.

Murphy et al. 2003, Ford et al. 2007
Managerial gaps
“lack or poorly developed management capabilities of private firms”

...we evaluate the knowledge, competences and managerial skills shown by businessmen and managing directors belonging to private companies...

Bessant et al. 1995, Bessant et al. 2000
Structural holes
"gaps between firms otherwise disconnected in a network"

...we evaluate The density of beneficial cooperative interactions taking place among private companies...

Burt 1992, 1997, 2004
Our interest here was to perform quantitative analysis on each of the "gaps" presented...
...Consequently, we had to develop a whole group of indicators divided into sets....
...these indicators
are sourced on various studies conducted by the
Spanish Official Statistiacal Institute
and the
Spanish Venture Capital Association
...
INE
ASCRI
...so, we gathered the data in a matrix that groups the previously presented gaps:
Managerial gaps
structural holes
Valley of death
Innovation gap
spanish regions
gap1
gap2
gap3
gap4
...since we needed to sum up and simplify the dataset, we chose a beautilully simple tool which is the FactoMineR package using R...
Lê et al. 2008
...to conduct a Multiple Factor Analysis
(MFA)
, which creates a product space integrating different groups of variables (each gap) describing the same observations (Spanish regions)
Escofier and Pagès, 1990, 1998
...allowing us analyze existing
commonalities and discrepancies
among and along gaps and regions...
...and feeding us back a representation of the groups of variables where groups
turn closer
when they represent the
same structure
on their individuals...
Abdi et al. 2007
Pagès 2004
...we simultaneously perform a cluster analysis on the standarized data, which helps us present the results...
Structural holes
Innovation gap
Managerial gaps
Valley of death
The study presents different but also shared realities among and along RISs considered...
Typologies representing "Structural Holes" and "innovation gaps" wouldn´t differ much if we performed separated analyses...which shows a shared reality among gaps and RISs.
...on the other hand, typologies of "Managerial gaps" and "Valley of death" would change pretty much, proving when it comes to "human capital" and "new technology-based ventures", system´s efficiency is not strongly correlated to the rest of the gaps...
Despite these differences, the cluster analysis feeds us back with three meaningful groups of regions:
Efficient Regional Innovation Systems
Catching-up systems
Lagging regions
...when comparing our results to other studies:
Regarding the first two groups of regions, our taxonomy befits previously developed works (Zabala-Iturriagagoitia, 2007). It even correlates efficiency with other typologies that assess innovation, proving density predicts involvement in innovation (Obstfeld 2005).
...but, our taxonomy shows a very strong and consistent north-south pattern that differs from previous studies. It presents all lagging RISs in the south of Spain.
just to recall
Xabier Alberdi Pons
Juan José Gibaja Martins
Mario Davide Parrilli

Thanks very much for your attention!!
This study set out to assess RIS´s efficiency. The approach is based on a mixture of previously developed
qualitative
and
quantitative
approaches.
We have
put together
four different
gaps
that prevent regions from efficiency, but had only seldom been empirically evaluated.
A whole new set of
indicators
has been adapted from the original sources.
We conducted MFA on our database to explore
common patterns
by dimensionality reduction.
The exercise of disaggregation has helped us obtain an
enhanced and clearer
picture of RIS´s efficiency,
Efficiency patterns vary depending on the gaps considered (pictures are not homothetic), proving
limitations of analyses that consider it a homogenously scoreable property
across regional space.

The methodology fed us back with clusters of regions that push for the creation of
new groups of regions.
We confirm the
data
available to evaluate RISs is very limited
The literature is
blind
when it comes to describing interaction among several subsystems considered only partially in this study.
The visual output we get is just a snapshot of region´s behavior.
Longitudinal analyses
could shed some light on the long run.
Social Network Analysis
(SNA)
could help at the comprehension of several hidden interdependencies that could enrich the “black box” of regions´ connectivity.
Knowledge exploration subsystem
knowledge exploitation subsystem
Regional policy subsystem
Inefficiency
can also be decomposed into several "gaps" that are onwards going to be framed in the following conceptual framework.
...given the chance, our aim is precisely to
contribute
to the design of improved techniques in order to
evaluate RIS´s efficiency
. In order to do that...
...We leverage on previous traditions...
Can we learn and improve our lens on RIS´s efficiency by mixing the very best of both approaches together?
but...studies may lack scope...
but...lacks empirical foundation...
We break down inefficiency into a set of explanatory qualitative gaps...
...then, we conduct our empirical study and present the results.
...We enshrine the gaps in an interpretative framework and adapt several indicators to measure it.
We finish presenting some contributions and limitations of the study.
(Density and quality of interactions along and among "subsystems")
Full transcript