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Emergence of the Americas in Global Affairs
Transcript of Emergence of the Americas in Global Affairs
Pd. 4 IB History Political Social United States Expansionist foreign policies: political, economic, social and ideological reasons In competition with Great European powers (Between 1870 and 1900, Europe had taken over 1/5 of land and 1/10 of population in the world)
Germany became U.S.'s biggest "imperial foe" and spurred the US into imperialism Economic Foreign trade became increasingly important to the US economy in the late 19th century
Overproduction and under consumption America needed "new frontier"
Many Americans believed U.S. had to "expand or explode" - increase in population, wealth and industry, production demanded more resources and markets Ideological Social Darwinism - earth belonged to the strong and fit
Jossiah Strong: Our Country (1885) advocated superiority of Anglo-Saxon christian civilization
Spread religion and democratic views to the "backwards" people
How the stronger nations dominating the weak ones was part of "natural law" Causes of the Spanish American War (1898) America was looking to expand and had heavy investments in sugar and tobacco ($50 million of property in 1890s)
US had always wanted control of Cuba even before Civil War
1895 new rebellion seized eastern Cuba and declared Republic of Cuba
McKinley asks for and receives Congressional declaration of war v. Spain
Began 1868 when Cuban rebels declared independence and began guerilla war against Spanish. Failed and many went to exile in US.
Spanish assassinate Marti—becomes martyr and rallying point for new rebellion
Yellow Journalism - to gain support from Americans for the war the media was used to convey Cuba as "helpless" against the viscous Spaniards. Effect of the Spanish American War: (1898) American business tightened control of sugar plantations
Cuba to provide land for American bases
US becomes global empire
Philippine resistance to US control decreased with education, transportation, health care reforms
Sign no treaty detrimental to US interests
Anti-American feelings among Cuban nationalists
National revenues to pay back debts to US Treaty of Versailles Canada's involvement in WWI Canada was involved in many battles on land, in the ocean, and even in the sky. Roughly 65,000 Canadians died in WWI and they were also present for the second battle of Ypres where they were subjected to the Germans first use of gas. Canada entered the war in 1914 and over 620,000 men and women enrolled even though the population was only a few million. The battle of Somme was where Canada lost most of its men, almost 57,000. In the capture of Vimy Ridge, 4 Canadians were rewarded the Victoria Cross for their bravery. Lastly, due to Canada's involvement their naval service went from 350 men and 2 ships to 9,000 men and 100 ships! Treaty of Versailles United States and Neutrality As a result... Most Americans felt the europeans were fighting over"petty" things and a "minor" incident
The United States had great economic deals with Great Britain and the rest of the Allies. However, Germany blockaded Great Britain from trade.
Lead to the sinking of the HMS Lusitania and forcing Germany to stop blockade for peace with the US
Woodrow Wilson prepared armies for war and break off ties to Russia
Zimmerman Telegraph- Germany caught trying to influence Mexico into the war United States and World War 1 Wilson didn't agree to the treaty being signed in Versailles
Wilson had bad ties to the Senate
He excluded republicans from the Treaty of Versailles
He consistently campaigns against them and 2/3 of Senate were republicans
Wilson's 14 points were also pointed for the benefit of only the Allies, and little for the Central Powers. The United States went into war with the Allies and Wilson's 14 points were never ratified. US's Foreign Policies Dollar Diplomacy Moral Diplomacy The Big Stick Teddy Roosevelt felt that being prepared for conflict was the best recourse the US had to prevent war. He believed that if the US made a show of force to the rest of the world, other nations might be hesitant to challenge the American Military.
"Speak softly and carry a big stick." - Teddy Roosevelt Taft believed that he could convince smaller, developing nations to support the US by investing American dollars in their economies
Not only made allies, but also made money for American investors Policy during Woodrow Wilson's presidency; the idea that the US would only support Latin American governments that were democratic
Enacted the keep US involvement out of WW1 Propaganda Posters of WW1 WW1 Battlefield Canada Propaganda Posters for WW1 Impact of the First World War on two countries of the Americas Germany Britain The cost of the war for Germany was around $38 billion dollars, including $33 billion USD in reparations for the war.
Germany had a total of 2,462,897 deaths, while another 4.3 million soldiers were wounded in battle.
Due to terms of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was no longer allowed to have an air force, they were to take full blame for the war, and there army had to be limited to 100,000 men.
The war made a major impact on Germany's economy, due to all of the debt they were in.
Led to the rise of nationalism and even nazism in Germany. Total Deaths: 994, 138
Gained more territory
Britain spent between 15-25% of it's accumulated wealth fighting the first world war. It borrowed a large amount of money, especially from the United States, leading to debt after the war.
Helped advance woman's rights (allowed to vote in 1918)
While distracted with WWI, Ireland begins Independence movement, leading to Irish Independence in 1921.