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Impacts of Liberalism
Transcript of Impacts of Liberalism
No more private property
Working Class v. Bourgeoisie
"Let the ruling classes tremble at a communist revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Workingmen of all countries, unite!"
The Communist Manifesto Published: 1848
Impacts of Classical Liberalism
Robert Owen (1771–1858)
Electoral Reform in the UK
Rutland – agricultural area in central England
Truro – tin mining center
Other locations – major industrial centers
The Class system
Peterloo Massacre 1819
Improving working conditions
1833 Factory Act, mill owners had to prove: they provided workers under 13 years old with two hours of schooling a day for six days of the week
1870 An Education Act established Education Boards that could create new schools and pay the fees for the poorest children.
1874 Children aged 10-14 were allowed to work part time in order to make time for their education.
1880 Education was made compulsory for 5-10 year olds.
1891 Schools received grants (subsidies) so that they could stop charging for basic primary education.
1918 Compulsory education was extended to children up to 14.
Society should be organized in a hierarchy
An elite (Educated, with the greatest ability) should rule
Vote should be limited to the few
Leaders should take care of their people-common good
Stability is important, achieved by following customs and tradition that have proven successful over time
Read page 140-141
1833 Factory Act : 9-13 year olds were not to work more than an 8 hour day.
1837 birth certificates were used to prove children were legally old enough to work.
1844 older children could work a maximum of 12 hours and must be given an hour and a half for meals.
1847 Factory Act: Working day 10 hours or 58 hours a week.
1844 Factory Act made it compulsory for: Machinery to be fenced in and required accidental deaths at work to be reported and investigated by a surgeon.
1897 Workmen’s Compensation Act: Employers were legally required to compensate for injuries and deaths at work.
Skilled textile workers were replaced by machines "Frames" operated by cheap unskilled labour
Ned Ludd first to destroy machinery in 1779
"Army of Redressers" (1811)
Read page 131-132
Continuity & Change
Edmund Burke (1729– 1797) :
The French Revolution attempted radical change based on liberal ideas such as equality and individual rights.
This lead to political chaos, and the reign of terror
Opposition to Change
Opposing political or social progress or reform:
reactionary attitudes toward women’s rights
In 1800, Owen became mill manager of the Chorton Twist Company in New Lanark, Scotland, the largest cotton-spinning business in Britain.
Education and Leisure:
Infants were cared for while their parents worked
Children attended school until the age of 10 (5 or 6 was usual)
10 year old's only worked a 10- hour day (Usually 13-hour day)
Adult education was available.
Free medical care, concerts, and dancing.
Decent houses were provided.
Streets were paved and regularly cleaned.
Company shops with reasonable prices replaced private ones charging high prices.
The village was landscaped
Fines were imposed for behaviour such as drunkenness.
The People’s Charter of 1838 outlined six essential goals:
• universal suffrage for all men over 21
• equal-sized electoral districts
• voting by secret ballot
• an end to the need for property qualifications for Parliament
• pay for Members of Parliament
• annual elections
The Charter was presented to British Parliament in 1839, with 1.25 million signatures.
The House of Commons rejected the Charter by a vote of 235 to 46.
Chartist leaders threatened a general strike and were
Troops fired on Chartists marching to demand the release of their leaders, killing 24 and wounding 40.
A second petition (3 million signatures) rejected in 1842.
A third petition was rejected in 1848 ending the movement
Chartists (Britain 1838 to 1848)
Castle Howard, England. One of the grandest private residences in Britain, most of it was built between 1699 and 1712 for the 3rd Earl of Carlisle.
wanted gradual democratic change to achieve socialism e.g. NDP in Canada or the Labour Party in Britain
Utopian Socialists proposed communities based on cooperation and equality
Example: Robert Owen
30-2 Read the caption beside figure 4-6 on page 103. How was the class system changing?