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George Gershwin An Analysis of His Style and Influence on Music Through Rhapsody in Blue
Transcript of George Gershwin An Analysis of His Style and Influence on Music Through Rhapsody in Blue
How His Influence on Jazz
Through Rhapsody in Blue 5 Main Themes: Ritornello Theme Train Theme Stride Theme Shuffle Theme Love Theme Main Characteristics of Rhapsody in Blue Classic Elements Jazzy Elements Counterpoints
Classic musical scale
Circle of fifths Blue notes
Jazzy rhythms Gershwin's
Mix-O-Matic Original Elements Chord Progressions
Melodies Rhapsody in Blue -Yogi Berra "Anyone who understands Jazz knows that you can't understand it. It's too complicated. That's what's so simple about it." “Jazz is restless. It won’t stay put and it never will.” -J. J. Johnson "...jazz is a word which has been used for at least
five or six different types of music.” -George Gershwin W. C. Handy
King of Blues Evolution of Jazz Commercialization
of Jazz African American Roots Blue Notes
Swing "Authentic Jazz"
Jazz as a folk music Early 20th Century Mass production of jazz tunes
Popular Music with 'jazzy' elements Jazz as a popular music form Jazz Spreads and Splits Jazz: Anything with blue notes/swing Jazz as an art form Modern Definition:
Expanding collection of 20th century styles
Roots in African-American culture
Essential: swing, improvisation, blue notes Mulltiple Funtions:
Improvisations, etc. "The Rhapsody is not a composition at all. It's a string of separate paragraphs stuck together.... You can cut parts of it without affecting the whole. You can remove any of these stuck-together sections and the piece still goes on as bravely as before. It can be a five-minute piece or a twelve-minute piece. And in fact, all these things are being done to it every day. And it's still the Rhapsody in Blue." -L. Bernstein What did Gershwin
Achieve? Classic Music more popular Jazz as an "art music" Adding jazzy elements to classical music Inspiring other musicians in multiple genres Gershwin referred to it as jazz Considered jazz by the people of the time Better descrption: contemporary classic Free Jazz Soul Jazz Groove Citations: Osgood, Henry O. So This is Jazz. Boston: Little, Brown, 1926
Gershwin, George. “The Composer in the Machine Age” in Saylor, Oliver’s Revolt in the Arts. New York: Bretano’s, 1930
Ellington, Duke. Music is My Mistress. New York: Doubleday, 1973
Baskerville, David Ross. Jazz Influence on Art Music to Mid-Century. Los Angeles, University of California, 1965
Kernfeld, Barry “Jazz” The New Harvard Dictionary of Music. ed. Randel, Don Michael. Cambridge: Harvard University press, 1986
Alkyer, Frank. DownBeat--the Great Jazz Interviews: A 75th Anniversary Anthology. New York: Hal Leonard, 2009 Greenberg, Rodney. George Gershwin. London: Phaidon, 1998
Feather, Leonard. Encyclopedia of Jazz. New York: Horizon, 1955, 1960; reprint 1984
George Gershwin in Armitage, ed., George Gershwin
Pollack, Howard. George Gershwin: His Life and Work. Berkeley: University of California, 2006
Schiff, David. Gershwin, Rhapsody in Blue. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997
Handy, W.C. Father of Blues: An Autobiography. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1941
Starr, Larry. George Gershwin. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2011 Is Rhapsody in Blue Jazz?