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The New South

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Emily Xu

on 26 September 2015

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Transcript of The New South

Bourbon Triumvirate
The New South
Henry Grady
To be a Populist meant that you supported the rights and powers of the common people in their struggle with the privileged elite.
Tom Watson
Tom Watson's views race relations were rather positive.
Watson was the first native southern politician to be concerned about African American farmers. He realized that if the two races came together politically, agricultural reform was possible.
However, near the end of his career, Watson's stand on civil rights had completely changed; he now opposed all minority rights, including those for African Americans.
Jim Crow Laws
- Laws passed in the South to establish the idea of "separate-but-equal" facilities for whites and for blacks
- Although the facilities for blacks were kept separate, they were hardly ever equal to the facilities that whites used.
Separate facilities included:
- restrooms
- water fountains
- railroad cars
- waiting rooms
- lodging facilities
- dining areas
- schools
What were they?
Jim Crow Laws
Plessy v. Ferguson
Leo Frank Case
Leo Frank
29-year-old man from Brooklyn
Leo Frank
The Atlanta Constitution
Charged with the murder of Mary Phagan
Testimony made by Jim Conley played a large role in the conviction and sentencing of Frank
Mary Phagan
- 14-year-old employee
Frank was sentenced to death.
Prevalence of Anti-Semitism
At the time, many people disliked Jews.
Rebirth of the KKK
The Leo Frank case resulted in the rebirth of a group of extremists known as the Ku Klux Klan.

Two months after Frank's sentence was changed, a group of armed men walked into the state prison in Milledgeville and took him from his prison cell. Frank was driven to Marietta, the home of Mary Phagan, and lynched.
Profession: superintendent of the National Pencil Company factory in Atlanta
Religion: Jewish
Jim Conley
- African American janitor in the factory
Joseph E. Brown
Served in the state senate from 1849-55
Governor from 1857-65
Served as the chief justice of the Georgia Supreme Court for two years
John B. Gordon
Governor from 1886-90
Alfred H. Colquitt
Governor from 1876-82
Rebecca Felton was the first woman to serve in the U.S. Senate and best remembered for her notable achievement.
Felton was a popular writer and shared her ideals and influence through the
Atlanta Journal.
A Senator of the U.S., a woman, is still a sort of political joke with our masculine leaders in party politics.... But the trail has been blazed! The road is apparently rough—maybe rocky—but the trail has been located. It is an established fact. While it is also a romantic adventure, it will ever remain an historical precedent—never to be erased.
November 21, 1922
Vol XCIII, No. 311
Convict Lease System
Major Movements
Prison Reform
Temperance Movement
the right to vote
Felton felt that the way prisoners were treated while enslaved in the convict lease system was inhuman and cruel and wanted to end the system.
Rebecca Latimer
convict lease system:

a system in Georgia sfter the Civil War in which prisoners were leased to companies for their labor; companes were supposed to provide housing and food
the antialcohol movement
Temperance Movement
- Paid laborers lost out on the jobs convicts did. Because they had had to compete for a small number of jobs, the unemployment rate and number of poor increased.
- Prisoners were often worked to death.
- Prisoners who were sentenced to labor did not receive the proper clothing, medical care, and food required.
Plessy v. Ferguson

Homer Plessy
A 30-year-old man named Homer Plessy bought a train ticket in Louisiana.
He was seven-eighths white and one-eighth black. Under Louisiana law, he was required to sit in the "colored" car.
Plessy instead took a seat in the car for whites only.
He was arrested when he refused to move.
Jim Crow Car Act of 1890
Required separate-but-equal accommodations for whites and blacks on railroad cars.
"Separate-but-equal" was the idea that facilities both whites and blacks used were kept separate but still of the same quality.
However, the facilities that African Americans used were hardly ever equal.
Facilities that both white and black citizens used daily were kept separated; African Americans were further segregated.
Plessy v. Ferguson gave Jim Crow laws their official status.
As a result of the decision in the court case, segregation became the law of the land until 1954.
States were given the right to:
- control social discrimination
- to promote segregation of the races
Various laws forced blacks to use separate facilities.
Separation of races was soon instituted in school as well.
Booker T. Washington
Booker T. Washington was a civil rights leader.
He was also the president of Tuskegee Institute.
Atlanta Compromise Speech
Differences with W. E. B. Du Bois
Washington believed that it would take time for society to accept African American racially. He believed that African Americans should focus on getting a good education and being economically successful. He believed that racial relations would eventually improve.
On the other hand, W. E. B. Du Bois wanted the discrimination and segregation to end immediately. He believed that only the 10 percent of the population of African Americans should get a higher education and become the leaders for the entire population.
Washington's speech proposed that black and whites should agree to benefit from each other.
He believed in social equality from a practical and realistic point of view that reflected the time.
He believed that economic independence was the only way to social and political equality for African Americans.

W .E. B. Du Bois
Niagara Movement
Made up of a group of black educators and professional men gathered by Du Bois to form an organization for social and political change
Demands included:
- an end to segregation
- an end to public discrimination
- economic and educational opportunity equality
Niagara Movement resulted in the creation of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Differences with Washington
Washington believed that it would take time for society to accept African American racially. He believed that African Americans should focus on getting a good education and being economically successful. He believed that racial relations would eventually improve.
On the other hand, W. E. B. Du Bois wanted the discrimination and segregation to end immediately. He believed that only the 10 percent of the population of African Americans should get a higher education and become the leaders for the entire population.
W. E. B. Du Bois
Du Bois believed that only 10 percent of the African American population should have a higher education. These educated people would be the leaders of the African American community.
If these had been normal times, the testimony that Jim Conley, the African American janitor at the factory, made would not have been heard.
However, people disliked Jews more than they disliked blacks.
Frank's sentence was changed from death to life imprisonment.
Georgia Governor John Slaton was pressured to pardon Frank.
John Slaton
Leo Frank's lawyers appealed the case to the state supreme court.
Served in state senate in 1849
Racial Views
When the Bourbon Triumvirate came into power, they wanted to keep the old south tradition of white supremacy in place.
White supremacy is the belief that the white race is superior to any other race.
Economic Views
The Bourbon Triumvirate wanted stronger economic ties with the North in order to expand Georgia's economy.
They lowered taxes, reduced war debts, and expanded business and industry.
The Bourbon Triumvirate were in power in the late 1800s (from 1872-90).
Although they improved Georgia's economy, they were criticized for accomplishing little to:
- help the poor
- improve education
- reform factory working conditions
- improve mental hospitals
- improve the lives of convicts
Henry Grady was in power in the late 19th Century, during the Redemption period that followed Reconstruction.
He was the leading journalist of the time and an accomplished public speaker.
He wrote for both the
Atlanta Daily Herald
and the
Atlanta Constitution
Grady Memorial Hospital is named after him.
Economic Views
Grady wanted to bring investors from the North to the South and to industrialize Georgia's economy, moving from agriculture to industry and manufacturing.
He helped Georgia's economy by making African Americans part of his plan for economic growth and bringing rich Northerners to the South, creating more jobs for Georgians.
International Cotton Exposition
The International Cotton Exposition took place in 1895.
The purpose of the exposition was to:
- show off the economic recovery of the South
- bring Northern investors to Georgia
- highlight Georgia's natural resources
Famous people that attended included Booker T. Washington, W. E. B. Du Bois, and Grover Cleveland, the president at that time.
- showcased Atlanta as a regional business center
- helped to attract investment
- led to the growth of the tactile industry in Georgia

Henry Grady
Woman's Suffrage
She was a major leader in the Temperance Movement.
She was member of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU), an organization that had large influences on the Temperance Movement.
Felton was a vocal supporter of women's right to vote.
She became the South's best known and most powerful advocate of women's right to vote.
Convict Lease System
Women's Suffrage
Felton tried to put an end to the system by advocating it in her speeches and writing about it in the columns of the
Atlanta Journal
Rural Free Delivery (RFD)
The Rural Free Delivery bill was a bill that required the U.S. postmaster general to find a way to deliver mail to rural homes free of charge.
It benefited Georgians because farm families no longer had to travel to the nearest post office for their mail, which was often in distant cities.
Political Positions
Elected to General Assembly in 1882
Elected to Congress in 1890 as a Democrat
Tuskegee Institute
Du Bois co-founded NAACP
Goal: to work for the rights of African Americans
Du Bois was a professor who taught economics and political science at Atlanta University.
1906 Atlanta Race Riots
Hoke Smith was assumed to be responsible for intensifying racial tension.
People believed that Smith had used racial fears to gain votes during his 1906 campaign.

Competition for a limited number of jobs and newspaper articles about African Americans being violent against whites were some economic factors that led to the competition between the races in Atlanta.
What Happened
On September 22, local newspapers were carrying spurious reports of black assaults.
Gradually, a crowd of over 5,000 whites and African Americans gathered on Decatur Street.
Some reports stated that there were thousands of whites who brought guns.
The riot lasted two days.
Before the city could become calm, martial law had to be declared.

At least eighteen African Americans and three whites were killed.
Hundreds of people were injured.
A great deal of property was also destroyed.
Hoke Smith
Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. Du Bois
by Emily Xu
Full transcript